Grading with rubrics is faster when there is only one decision to make, rather than a separate decision for each criterion. On balance, for most classroom purposes I recommend analytic rubrics. Therefore, most of the examples in this book will be analytic rubrics. Before we leave holistic rubrics, however, I want to reemphasize the important point that all the criteria are used in holistic rubrics.
You consider them together, but you don't boil down the evaluation to the old "excellent-good-fair-poor" kind of thinking along one general "judgment" dimension. True holistic rubrics are still rubrics; that is, they are based on criteria for good work and on observation of how the work meets those criteria.
General and task-specific rubrics General rubrics use criteria and descriptions of performance that generalize across hence the name general rubrics , or can be used with, different tasks. The tasks all have to be instances of the same learning outcome—for example, writing or mathematics problem solving.
The criteria point to aspects of the learning outcome and not to features of any one specific task for example, criteria list characteristics of good problem solving and not features of the solution to a specific problem.
The descriptions of performance are general, so students learn general qualities and not isolated, task-specific features for example, the description might say all relevant information was used to solve the problem, not that the numbers of knives, forks, spoons, and guests were used to solve the problem.
Task-specific rubrics are pretty well described by their name: They are rubrics that are specific to the performance task with which they are used. Task-specific rubrics contain the answers to a problem, or explain the reasoning students are supposed to use, or list facts and concepts students are supposed to mention.
The bottom panel of Figure 1. Why use general rubrics? General rubrics have several advantages over task-specific rubrics. General rubrics Can be shared with students at the beginning of an assignment, to help them plan and monitor their own work. Can be used with many different tasks, focusing the students on the knowledge and skills they are developing over time. Describe student performance in terms that allow for many different paths to success.
Focus the teacher on developing students' learning of skills instead of task completion. Do not need to be rewritten for every assignment. Let's look more closely at the first two advantages. Can be shared with students at the beginning of an assignment. General rubrics do not "give away answers" to questions. They do not contain any information that the students are supposed to be developing themselves.
Instead, they contain descriptions like "Explanation of reasoning is clear and supported with appropriate details. They clarify for students how to approach the assignment for example, in solving the problem posed, I should make sure to explicitly focus on why I made the choices I did and be able to explain that. Therefore, over time general rubrics help students build up a concept of what it means to perform a skill well for example, effective problem solving requires clear reasoning that I can explain and support.
Can be used with many different tasks. Because general rubrics focus students on the knowledge and skills they are learning rather than the particular task they are completing, they offer the best method I know for preventing the problem of "empty rubrics" that will be described in Chapter 2.
Good general rubrics will, by definition, not be task directions in disguise, or counts of surface features, or evaluative rating scales.
Because general rubrics focus students on the knowledge and skills they are supposed to be acquiring, they can and should be used with any task that belongs to the whole domain of learning for those learning outcomes.
Of course, you never have an opportunity to give students all of the potential tasks in a domain—you can't ask them to write every possible essay about characterization, solve every possible problem involving slope, design experiments involving every possible chemical solvent, or describe every political takeover that was the result of a power vacuum.
These sets of tasks all indicate important knowledge and skills, however, and they develop over time and with practice. Essay writing, problem solving, experimental design, and the analysis of political systems are each important skills in their respective disciplines. If the rubrics are the same each time a student does the same kind of work, the student will learn general qualities of good essay writing, problem solving, and so on.
If the rubrics are different each time the student does the same kind of work, the student will not have an opportunity to see past the specific essay or problem. The general approach encourages students to think about building up general knowledge and skills rather than thinking about school learning in terms of getting individual assignments done. Why use task-specific rubrics? Task-specific rubrics function as "scoring directions" for the person who is grading the work.
Because they detail the elements to look for in a student's answer to a particular task, scoring students' responses with task-specific rubrics is lower-inference work than scoring students' responses with general rubrics. For this reason, it is faster to train raters to reach acceptable levels of scoring reliability using task-specific rubrics for large-scale assessment.
Similarly, it is easier for teachers to apply task-specific rubrics consistently with a minimum of practice. General rubrics take longer to learn to apply well. However, the reliability advantage is temporary one can learn to apply general rubrics well , and it comes with a big downside.
Obviously, task-specific rubrics are useful only for scoring. If students can't see the rubrics ahead of time, you can't share them with students, and therefore task-specific rubrics are not useful for formative assessment. That in itself is one good reason not to use them except for special purposes. Task-specific rubrics do not take advantage of the most powerful aspects of rubrics—their usefulness in helping students to conceptualize their learning targets and to monitor their own progress.
Why are rubrics important? Maggie, her youngest daughter, who still lives at home and understands the family heritage, has been promised the quilts.
The two daughters each have opposing views on the value and worth of the different items in their lives A comedy is defined as also beginning with a problem, but one of less significant importance. The characters try to solve the problem and the story ends with all the characters uniting in either a marriage of a party. Although these two genres are seen as being complete opposites of each other, through further analysis one can gather that though they are different certain similarities can also be seen What do we continuously attempt to improve.
What kind of changes are we trying to institute. In other words, what is an ideal society. Many people have very diversified views about a perfect civilization. Some people follow traditions so deeply rooted in their everyday life that they don't even recognize them as such. Why do you cook rice a certain way.
Well, that's the way Grandma always did it. Others hold tradition above anything else. They feel that it is very important to follow these established customs and cannot even imagine rebelling against them although they may be hurtful in some ways. They may not even remember the reason for these customs in the first place The anger that was instilled in me was caused by numerous comments and actions that occurred throughout reading the short story.
I feel she was selfish, uneducated and unappreciative of her past and that the way she carried herself was ridiculous. Right from the beginning of my readings you are introduced to a character named Dee, before you ever get the opportunity to warm up to her character, she shows a very selfish characteristic and that trait is repeatedly brought out in the stor Alice Expresses what her feeling are about her heritage through this story.
It means everything to her. Something such as a quilt that was hand made makes it special. Only dedication and years of work can represent a quilt. A symbol is when the author uses an object in the story to represent a greater meaning.
The quilt is a symbol of the family heritage that can only be appreciated by certain people The theory of psychoanalysis focuses on the concept of how our unconscious thoughts, feelings, and emotions play an active role in our daily lives.
The id, ego, and superego are the three mental zones that encompass our psyche. Each zone has a specific function: The id functions on the pleasure principle; the ego on the protection of the individual; and the superego on protection of society Using careful descriptions and attitudes, Walker demonstrates which factors contribute to the values of one's heritage and culture; she illustrates that these are represented not by the possession of objects or mere appearances, but by one's lifestyle and attitude.
Throughout the story, Walker personifies the different sides of culture and heritage in the characters of Dee and the mother the narrator The main character in the story, Mother, has two daughters that she treats very differently, and they treat her differently. One daughter looks down on Mother in a condescending manner, and the other is obedient and kind.
In "Everyday Use", Walker shows that in relationships between a mother and daughters, adaptation to change can sometimes be very hard, which leads to pride and protecting what one has accomplished, and finally shows how un-appreciation can hinder these relationships However, even before a good majority of the general public was literate, there were people who learned various stories either from the bible, historical stories, etc.
This gave the public a chance to see a story and take the different lessons out of the play. The public could decide whether or not to utilize the lessons in their daily lives Their philosophies were commonly discussed in magazines, and their concepts of man's ultimate freedom of choice were quite intriguing to readers Abstract Sending data through the internet efficiently has always posed many problems.
The two major technologies used, Ethernet and Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM , have done an admirable job of porting data, voice and video from one point to another. However, they both fall short in differing areas; neither has been able to present the "complete" package to become the single, dominant player in the internet market. They both have dominant areas they cover In the context of the whole play I believe it is a perfect description of how Cleopatra uses the different aspects of her character.
Shakespeare uses language, imagery and structure to show the different sides of her personality. This allows Cleopatra to be interpreted in many ways by the actress and the audience The goal of this paper is to help prepare you by sharing, from personal experience, what to expect in the transition.
I will compare and contrast high school life and college life. Several changes include, difference between high school teachers and college professors, the workload requirements, and the overall responsibility requirements. In high school, the personnel seem to watch out for students almost like they are their own children. They guide them and correct them if necessary These two stories show different cultures, generations and parenting methods.
Although the two mothers act differently, they are both ultimately motivated by the same desire: to be a good parent. In addition, while researching related articles, I realized that there were two recurring themes of mothers and daughters: respect and diverse ways of parenting These parts are necessary to have a complete mind, just as the members of a family are needed to make up the entire family. The use of components to equal a whole is often exercised in literature.
Alice Walker's short story, "Everyday Use," contains the idea of family and of the mind, therefore her work can be evaluated through psychological methods. Through their actions, the characters symbolize the three different parts of the mind: the id, the ego, and the superego Classes are not very difficult; AP courses are an exception. Student workload is minimal, obtaining good grades is not much of a struggle, and exams are typically easy to pass.
Course load outside the class is no more then a few hours of homework each week. Teachers and faculty help facilitate a moderately laid back culture to learning.
The school system supports students to make sure their performance in classes in adequate to move on and aid students who are behind Dee becomes a more complex character, however, as the story unfolds.
Blessed with both brains and good looks, Dee emerges as someone who is still struggling with her identity and heritage. Dee's physical beauty can be defined as one of her biggest assets Everyday Uses For Your Grandmother. The three main characters in the story are Dee, her younger sister Maggie, and their mother.
Social behavior pertains to numerous different areas, but one area in particular is communication. Describe the possible confound s in this experimental design. There are two major possible confounds in this experimental design.
Firstly, the social environments could be changed; the comparison from this experimental design is to compare the WAVFT scores between and previous year. During this period, the difference in the mean score could be resulted by the development of the technology, or the changed school environments. It has come to be known as Saussurian systems, which may seem abstract but can be found in our everyday interactions. The theory establishes a means for calculating the probability an event will occur in the future given some evidence based upon prior occurrences of the event and the posterior probability that the evidence will predict the event.The top panel of Figure 1. I have already discussed this point in the section about selecting criteria. Typically in any deontological system, our duties, rules, and obligations are determined by God. Can be used with many different tasks.
Cannot share with students would give away answers. Here the writer uses a usually negative sign to foreshadow a negative future. Course load outside the class is no more then a few hours of homework each week. Rubrics help keep teachers focused on criteria, not tasks.
This may be the way it is defined in the dictionary, but everyone has their own beliefs and ideas of what shapes their heritage. Unfortunately, for every perfect child there is, it seems that there is one child that is less talented and less beautiful. The general approach encourages students to think about building up general knowledge and skills rather than thinking about school learning in terms of getting individual assignments done.