This is not standard practice for a non-precision approach, as the radar altimeter does not take into account the contour of the terrain around the airport. Standard practice would entail calling out the readings on the pressure altimeter , which is set according to atmospheric pressure and thereby references the elevation of the actual airport.
The terrain on approach to Smolensk airport is uneven and locally much lower than the runway level. Power settings for jet engines are expressed in instrument readings and flight data recorders as percentages labeled as "N1" and "N2".
N1 and N2 refer to the spools, or shafts, of a jet engine on which the compressor and turbine blades are mounted; jet engine power is measured as a percentage of maximum N1 or N2 rpm. However, they did not go around, and continued the descent. The Final Report would later determine that a go-around was technically possible from as low as 40 m, but that m was the first of many times that the crew were required to go around, but did not. The crew continued the descent. If this happens, the first officer is supposed to overrule the captain, take control of the airplane, and initiate a go-around.
Despite these calls, neither pilot initiated a go-around, and the descent continued. Therefore, when "PULL UP" sounds, the crew is supposed to begin an immediate, maximum performance emergency climb full power and angle of attack to the maximum permissible without stalling and continue climbing until the warning stops. Prior to this moment, the radar controller had no reason to think that the landing attempt was not proceeding normally. The behavior of the controller was later the subject of some criticism by the Polish media.
The controller remained silent for about 12 seconds after the aircraft passed the m mark, and, even at that point, he did not order a go-around, but, rather issued an instruction to transit from a descent to a horizontal flight. The decision to go around was apparently reached in the cabin of the aircraft within a few seconds of that instruction. None of this ever happened, with the aircraft continuing the descent through the m mark while the ground control remained silent. It is unknown whether the crew really understood the ground control instruction literally, "landing additionally, , 3 m" , which was issued in Russian and used a relatively recent expression that was only codified in Simultaneously to this callout, the FDR recorded a brief pull on the control column, likely done by the first officer, as he instinctively started the go-around sequence of actions.
According to the investigation, this attempt at a go-around was completely overridden by the auto-pilot, which was still active, and, in any event, it was not completed protocol requires that the correct sequence of operations during a go-around attempt involves increasing thrust to takeoff mode and disengaging the autopilot, neither action was done at the time.
The Russian investigation surmised that at this moment the flight crew saw the trees through the fog, and instinctively reacted in an attempt to escape their grave predicament. The crew did not disengage the autopilot, but the action of commanding maximum pitch up on the control column overpowered it, causing the pitch channel to disengage.
The control column briefly moved to neutral at this point, then moved full aft and remained there for the duration of the flight.
Two seconds before the "level" command, the aircraft commander made the decision to go around. According to the Polish committee's findings, the command to level should have been issued 10 seconds sooner, when the aircraft was well below the glide path.
The resulting asymmetrical lift caused an uncommanded roll to the left. Within 5 seconds, the aircraft was inverted, hitting the ground with the left wing, followed very shortly after by the nose. The Peaceful Atom for Every Child? Repackaging Nuclear Energy in Russia and Ukraine in the Post-Chernobyl Atomic Glow Tatiana Kasperski Within a few years of the Chernobyl disaster strong anti-nuclear protests developed in several Soviet Republics where dozens of nuclear reactors were operating or under construction.
Through s and s the public nuclear organizations developed new communication instruments and forms, as well as such new spaces for nuclear science and technology displays as local information centers and exhibitions.
This paper will focus on the activity of these centers in Russia and Ukraine and their attempts to repackage Soviet nuclear technology through entertainment and education as an object of both fun and awe for post-Soviet citizens and first of all for children.
They opened excursions to nuclear stations; sponsored competitions for children including drawing contests; screened documentaries and cartoons; arranged visits to nuclear technology exhibitions and museums; and organized games, lectures and even festivals, carnivals and plays.
What were the goals of the nuclear industry? What were nuclear spokesmen trying to achieve? Long after the first international agreements between the fascist regimes and the US and the UN concerning the development of nuclear programs in the s and s, a myriad of ideologically heterogeneous social resistances to nuclear technology appeared in the s and s in the Iberian Peninsula, closely intertwined with wider political struggles.
Constructions from steel and plastics reduced the fixed costs of the showmen since the s. Our case study is dedicated to toys, made from plastics since the s. Plastics daily infiltrate into everyday life. They are defined as a material with plasticity which allow production in any shape, size and form, without limits.
In the modern playthings kingdom such qualities of plastics can make them into a material of imagination, assuming limitless forms. The world of construction play has seen a boom of plastics toys after the Second World War.
Toymakers were experimenting with new types of plastics with better properties than traditional materials. In this paper we will analyze how the toy industry dealt with the substitution dimension of plastics: wood, iron, aluminum were substituted by new synthetics materials. To what extension toys reflect technology and innovations in plastics? How important were plastics for the mass production of playthings?
This argument is supported by historical research about the reintroduction in Europa of the prefab technique of building, achieved by the architect Gustav Lilienthal and the development of models to analyze the spatial distribution of atoms improved by the chemist Friedrich A. In the conference, I would like to describe how in both contexts, the dissimilar production of knowledge is supported by a notation system of building which defines the practice of modeling with building blocks.
Based on this notation, I would like to propose the idea that during the process of building with these materials a set of construction techniques is stored in the builders, configuring a specific practice to produce and transmit knowledge. Thus, building blocks can be moved to any place such as the laboratory, the school or the home without changing the achievement of its practice. Shaping the future through play: Construction sets and their manuals late 19th-early 20th c. Artemis Yagou In the period under consideration late 19th-early 20th c.
With the gradual expansion of the middle class and the rise of domestication, construction sets became playthings par excellence for interior spaces, where play was supervised by adults. Unlike outdoor play which was considered dangerous, playing with construction sets was not only safe but also expressed the dominant rhetoric of bourgeois education for boys, which emphasized discipline, rationality and self-control. Especially in Germany, such toy things were seen as preparation for engineering careers and underpinned the vision of a modern society where the engineer held a central position.
The proposed paper will analyse construction sets' manuals from Munich collections Stadtmuseum, Technical University and Deutsches Museum , in order to discuss the ways in which play activities were structured by relevant adult stakeholders. Toy producers, parents, engineers, representatives of the State and other adults contributed in different ways to these manuals and shaped the acceptable usage of construction sets and the associated educational discourse. The presentation topic lies on the intersection of the history of technology, play, gender, everyday life and education.
Simultaneously to this callout, the FDR recorded a brief pull on the control column, likely done by the first officer, as he instinctively started the go-around sequence of actions. According to the investigation, this attempt at a go-around was completely overridden by the auto-pilot, which was still active, and, in any event, it was not completed protocol requires that the correct sequence of operations during a go-around attempt involves increasing thrust to takeoff mode and disengaging the autopilot, neither action was done at the time.
The Russian investigation surmised that at this moment the flight crew saw the trees through the fog, and instinctively reacted in an attempt to escape their grave predicament.
The crew did not disengage the autopilot, but the action of commanding maximum pitch up on the control column overpowered it, causing the pitch channel to disengage. The control column briefly moved to neutral at this point, then moved full aft and remained there for the duration of the flight. Two seconds before the "level" command, the aircraft commander made the decision to go around.
According to the Polish committee's findings, the command to level should have been issued 10 seconds sooner, when the aircraft was well below the glide path. The resulting asymmetrical lift caused an uncommanded roll to the left. Within 5 seconds, the aircraft was inverted, hitting the ground with the left wing, followed very shortly after by the nose. The nose impact resulted in forces exceeding g , which killed everyone on board instantly. The largest pieces left were the wing roots the strongest part of an airplane , the wingtips and the tail section.
The tail section came to rest backwards, relative to the direction of flight. A small post-impact fire ensued, but was quickly brought under control by the emergency services and extinguished 18 minutes later.
Pictures from the scene showed parts of the aircraft charred and strewn through a wooded area. Poland also set up its own committee to investigate the crash, and prosecutors in both countries began criminal investigations. The committee's Air Accident Investigation Commission is responsible for investigating civil aviation accidents occurring in commonwealth member nations.
The committee is headquartered in Moscow , Russia. The commission was to be supervised by Prime Minister Vladimir Putin. Since the FMS units are linked together, being able to read the memory of one meant the investigation was able to determine the actions performed by both units.
Alexei Gusev, general director of the Aviakor factory, said that the aircraft's three engines had been repaired and technicians had upgraded the plane's avionics at a recent overhaul the previous year.
He said that there were no doubts about the plane's airworthiness. However, in the transcript released online by the Sejm, the meaning of her speech was changed: that when a small piece of flesh was found, the ground was dug to a depth of one metre.
Moreover, in September , one of the Polish pilgrims to Smolensk found a jaw with teeth and two other bones. However, Edmund Klich, the head of the Polish investigative commission, said that "Poland does not have a lot of things that we would like to have" and as an example gives lack of documentation of Smolensk airport and regulations about Air Control.
Polish officials were to secure all Polish state documents found in the wreckage, as well as electronic devices portable computers and mobile telephones belonging to government officials and military officers. I have not stepped into the twilight zone. Rather, I am trying to rid myself of some measure of my present bias, which is the tendency people have, when considering a trade-off between two future moments, to more heavily weight the one closer to the present.
A great many academic studies have shown this bias—also known as hyperbolic discounting—to be robust and persistent. To hear more feature stories, see our full list or get the Audm iPhone app. Most of them have focused on money. Giving up a 20 percent return on investment is a bad move—which is easy to recognize when the question is thrust away from the present.
Present bias shows up not just in experiments, of course, but in the real world. Especially in the United States, people egregiously undersave for retirement —even when they make enough money to not spend their whole paycheck on expenses, and even when they work for a company that will kick in additional funds to retirement plans when they contribute. That state of affairs led a scholar named Hal Hershfield to play around with photographs.
They had the students observe, for a minute or so, virtual-reality avatars showing what they would look like at age What this did, he explained, was make me ask myself, How will I feel toward the end of my life if my offspring are not taken care of?
When people hear the word bias, many if not most will think of either racial prejudice or news organizations that slant their coverage to favor one political position over another. Present bias, by contrast, is an example of cognitive bias—the collection of faulty ways of thinking that is apparently hardwired into the human brain.
The collection is large. Some of the are dubious or trivial. But a solid group of or so biases has been repeatedly shown to exist, and can make a hash of our lives.
In fact, the odds are still Optimism bias leads us to consistently underestimate the costs and the duration of basically every project we undertake.
Availability bias makes us think that, say, traveling by plane is more dangerous than traveling by car. Images of plane crashes are more vivid and dramatic in our memory and imagination, and hence more available to our consciousness. The anchoring effect is our tendency to rely too heavily on the first piece of information offered, particularly if that information is presented in numeric form, when making decisions, estimates, or predictions.
A striking illustration of anchoring is an experiment in which participants observed a roulette-style wheel that stopped on either 10 or 65, then were asked to guess what percentage of United Nations countries is African. The ones who saw the wheel stop on 10 guessed 25 percent, on average; the ones who saw the wheel stop on 65 guessed 45 percent.
The correct percentage at the time of the experiment was about 28 percent. The effects of biases do not play out just on an individual level. Last year, President Donald Trump decided to send more troops to Afghanistan, and thereby walked right into the sunk-cost fallacy.
In all cases, this way of thinking is rubbish. Confirmation bias shows up most blatantly in our current political divide, where each side seems unable to allow that the other side is right about anything. Rather than weighing the evidence independently, analysts accepted information that fit the prevailing theory and rejected information that contradicted it.
They were the researchers who conducted the African-countries-in-the-UN experiment. Tversky died in Kahneman won the Nobel Prize in Economics for the work the two men did together, which he summarized in his best seller, Thinking, Fast and Slow.In other words, what if it was me? This was not the Luch-2MU system as the Russians stated. Normally, one pilot flies the airplane while another crew member handles radio communications.
The tail section came to rest backwards, relative to the direction of flight. At the moment, under these conditions that we have now, we will not manage to land" to which Kazana replies "Well, then we have a problem. The U. However, right next to it was another row of water bottles, and clearly the mechanism in that row was in order. We sought to understand the relative importance of specific NPT constructs across different settings core processes and mechanisms and differences that seemed to apply in relation to different intervention types and healthcare systems contingent processes and mechanisms.
The lamps of the first group m had their light filters shattered and, of three bulbs installed, only one was serviceable. Repackaging Nuclear Energy in Russia and Ukraine in the Post-Chernobyl Atomic Glow Tatiana Kasperski Within a few years of the Chernobyl disaster strong anti-nuclear protests developed in several Soviet Republics where dozens of nuclear reactors were operating or under construction. Poland stated that their comments were not taken into consideration. For another, many of the test questions, including the one above, seemed somewhat remote from scenarios one might encounter in day-to-day life. Edmund Klich declined to speculate on whether the pilot had been placed under pressure to land, commenting, "Psychologists will have to assess the stress levels the pilots were subjected to. Following a brief, but hopefully accessible, explanation of some compression techniques, the paper will examine the interaction between technological developments and social behaviour in their recent historical contexts.
Michalak had only hours, all of which were on the Tu The resulting asymmetrical lift caused an uncommanded roll to the left. The crew continued the descent. No convoys could travel along this line.
Following Kirk et al. All were tested on bias-mitigation skills before the training, immediately afterward, and then finally after eight to 12 weeks had passed. The protection of future generations, environmental disasters over the last ten years require a closer thinking of the environment and of climate change.
But what if the person undergoing the de-biasing strategies was highly motivated and self-selected? The service life of the TuM is more than 25 years or 30, hours or 15, cycles whichever comes first. However, right next to it was another row of water bottles, and clearly the mechanism in that row was in order.