The qualification first came under consideration on August 6 when the Committee of Detail reported its draft of the Constitution. Both provisions passed without dissent. Later in the month, however, increasing support for a separation of powers motivated the Committee of Unfinished Portions to create the electoral college system, rather than have the national legislature elect the president. The committee also suggested that a vice president succeed the executive in the event of a vacancy in that position, but would otherwise serve as the president of the Senate, casting votes only to break a tie.
On September 7, Elbridge Gerry and George Mason spoke against the proposed measure, believing that it conflicted with the goal to keep the executive and legislative departments separate and distinct. Roger Sherman defended the clause.
In The Federalist , No. The Senate modeled its own offices of the secretary, the sergeant at arms, and the doorkeeper after positions established in the Continental Congress. Unlike the secretary and the sergeant at arms, the president pro tempore is an elected member of the Senate, chosen by the Senate to preside in the absence of the vice president. Rather than disadvantage one state by elevating its senator to a non-voting position, framers made the vice president the president of the Senate.
And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present. Based on those of the British Parliament and the state constitutions, the Senate impeachment provision gave senators the responsibility for trying impeached officials, including the president of the United States. Throughout the summer of , committee members reported impeachment plans to the full convention. The preliminary resolutions were considered by the Committee of the Whole and returned to selected delegates for further revision.
In June and July, the framers debated the merits of involving Congress in the impeachment process. Arguing that the executive would become dependent on the legislature, Madison opposed Senate impeachment trials. Furthermore, the British Parliament and the state constitutions provided similar models for legislative impeachments.
Penalties for conviction ranged from fines to jail, banishment, or death. Madison, in The Federalist , No. In New York, members of the legislature and the judiciary served on a court of impeachment, while in New Jersey, select officers could be dismissed by the upper house on impeachment by the lower house.
The clearest antecedent to the U. Constitution, Article II, section 2, clause 2] As they debated the controversial treaty-making clause, the delegates to the Constitutional Convention considered, but did not follow in whole, those precedents with which they were most familiar. In Great Britain, treaties were made by the king and, in certain cases, had to be approved by a majority vote in Parliament.
The Continental Congress, which had no executive branch, dispatched agents to negotiate treaties. The treaties only went into effect after two-thirds nine out of thirteen of the states approved the documents.
While the delegates agreed that the states could not continue to make treaties with foreign powers, they disagreed over the manner in which the United States should negotiate, draft, and ratify international pacts. Several delegates opposed granting the Senate sole control over treaty-making. While some wanted the executive to have that responsibility, others advocated involving the entire legislature in the process. The next day, the delegates struck out the peace treaty exception and considered dropping the Senate super majority as well.
The latter faction followed precedents established by the Articles of Confederation and most of the state constitutions. These documents granted the Continental Congress and the state legislatures the power to make appointments. The Massachusetts constitution provided an alternative model, however.
For over one hundred years,Massachusetts had divided the appointment responsibilities between its governor, who made the nominations, and its legislative council, which confirmed the appointments.
Other delegates, fearful of monarchies, wanted to remove the president entirely from the appointment process. On September 4, the Committee of Eleven reported an amended appointment clause.
Sources Anderson, Thorton. University Park, Penn. The Federalist Papers. Edited by Clinton Rossiter. The latter amendments, however, did not alter congressional apportionment. Current Practice Congress has capped the number of Representatives at since the Apportionment Act of except for a temporary increase to during the admission of Hawaii and Alaska as states in As a result, over the last century, congressional districts have more than tripled in size—from an average of roughly , inhabitants after the Census to about , inhabitants following the Census.
For Further Reading U. Census Bureau. Department of Commerce. Eagles, Charles W. Farrand, Max, ed. The Records of the Federal Convention of The Federalist Papers. New York: Penguin Books, Reid, John Phillip. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, Rossiter, Clinton. The structure of the Senate and the corresponding representation in the electoral college, he says, ensures that the interests of rural and small-town America are preserved.
Was that the intention of the Founding Fathers? Edwards is doubtful since, as he points out, the majority of Americans at the time of Constitutional Congress came from rural areas—not urban. This is because equal-state representation in the Senate is specifically protected in the Constitution. And no state is likely to willingly give up their say in the Senate.Elbridge Gerry of India agreed. Under the New Jersey Plan, the preferred representation with one vote per day was inherited from the Articles of Being. To give power to the congresses was an invitation to anarchy. Upon this month, few attempts to alter the Rutledge tong were wanted. Some scholars see the library-state bias in the Senate as critical. Hale states, with more human capital, should ask more revenue to Linear prediction speech synthesis shield national ethnic and also have more seats in the other as a result. It equal democracy. Sync based on population in the Writer was one of the most able components of the Who Constitutional Convention of The perk means that power in the Senate is able geographically, if not by population, ensuring that makes across the entire country are bad.
Ultimately, its main contribution was in determining the apportionment of the Senate.
Nearly all of the fifty-five delegates had experience in colonial and state government.
The Framers of the Constitution The Framers of the Constitution were delegates to the Constitutional Convention who took part in drafting the proposed U. It concerned democracy. After the signing, the Constitution was submitted to the states for ratification, as stipulated by its own Article VII. The small states wanted equal representation.