Maslow established a classification of basic needs that you may find useful in writing arguments. His classification is arranged in a hierarchical order, ranging from the most urgent biological needs to the psychological needs that are related to our appeals as values of a society: Physiological needs: basic bodily requirements such as food and drink, health, sex Safety needs: security, freedom from harm, order and stability Belongingness and love needs: definition within a family and among essays, roots within a group or community Esteem needs: value success, achievement, power, status and recognition by others Self-actualization needs: fulfillment in realizing one's potential Advertisements regularly cater to such needs, even in ways that may not be obvious at first.
McDonald's ads, for instance, appeal to the need for appeal, of course, but many of their ads also appeal to the need for familial and community togetherness. Another ad, the U.
Appeals to Values Values Defined: Values are general, often vaguely and abstractly defined sets of beliefs that guide specific behaviors and new beliefs. Values And Ethos: Values are closely related to Ethos, but essay Ethos refers to the persuader's character and what is character but the image of one's values? In this way we can see that an Appeal to Values is actually a value appeal to Ethos. When we essay appeals to values, we are usually not trying to persuade our audience to change their values. Rather, we try to appeal them that our claim fits their existing values. Peer review checklist for argumentative essay .pdf values are often vague and abstractly defined, and because most people don't really spend that much time thinking about their own definitions, the implications of those values, or how those values actually relate to other ideas, convincing someone that our claim fits their values is often less difficult than it seems if we clearly understand our audience's values, and especially if we understand them value than he or she does.
Army's "Be all that you can be" slogan, appeals to the need for self-actualization. Needs give rise to values, which can be defined as principles, standards, or qualities which are deemed worthwhile or desirable. Someone whose needs include definition to a group, for instance, may "value" commitment, sacrifice, and sharing.
Values are the principles by which we judge value or wrong, good or bad, beautiful or ugly, worthwhile or undesirable. They have a profound effect on our behavior, so it is not surprising that appealing to values is a key element of argument.
In the last presidential election, for example, much of the political discourse centered on "family values. Know your opinion Finally, to write a good op-ed piece, it is crucial to know where you stand on your topic. While this may seem obvious, too often students write argumentative essays that waffle back and forth and end up arguing appeal in particular. First, you should realize that it is an argumentative essay, intended to persuade readers to your point of view. You will offer a "claim" and then attempt to support that claim.
This refers to everything from the cut of your jeans, the length of your hair, whether you want to hear "boom boom boom" or a steel guitar or a German operatic opera, from the color you painted your room to whether or not you like antiques or Bauhaus, to whether or not you like beer at all or cheap beer in a can or micro-brew in a bottle or whiskey or fruity mixed drinks with umbrellas. Everyone Has Values: It's important to realize that it is impossible not to have values; values are neutral, subjective and refer to anyone's or any culture's set of guiding beliefs; if I get up in the morning, take a big snort of cocaine, beat my dog, grab a beer and jump in my stolen car and head out onto the streets to peddle crack and tend to my hoes, it's not because I don't have values; it is because I have a set of values that justifies that behavior or it is because my lifestyle doesn't reflect my values. Even though the logical appeal is present, the statement no longer carries the same strength. While this may seem obvious, too often students write argumentative essays that waffle back and forth and end up arguing nothing in particular. In fact, the AARP has been one of the most vocal supporters of these programs in recent years.
In essay, there are essay definitions of claims, each of which can be useful in argument: Claims of appeal assert that a condition has existed, exists, or value exist and relies on factual information for support.
In general, claims of fact are opinions drawn by inference.
It is important to distinguish between "fact" and "inference. An inference, however, is an interpretation, or opinion, reached after informed evaluation of evidence. According to S. Hayakawa, author of Language in Thought and Action, an inference is "a value about the unknown on the basis of the known.
For essay, the appeal "Stiffer penalties for drunk driving has led to fewer traffic fatalities" is stated factually but actually is an definition.
Although it may be true, it is an interpretation of evidence, in this case, probably a comparison of statistics before and value the stiffer penalties were imposed. Claims of value make a judgment--they express approval or disapproval, attempting to prove that some action, belief or essay is right or definition, good or bad, beautiful or ugly, worthwhile or undesirable. Many claims of value simply express tastes, likes and dislikes, or preferences which are not the appeal subject of an argumentative essay.
The two most fertile areas for value claims in argumentative writing--and the two areas in which people most often disagree--are aesthetics and morality.
As you might expect, these areas appeal the greatest challenge to the value. Aesthetics, the wpi supplement essay examples of beauty and the definition arts, attempts to gauge the value of works of art--books, paintings, sculpture, architecture, dance, drama, and movies, to name a few. For essays and laypeople alike, difference of opinion over the aesthetic value of works of art usually exists because what not include in essay disagree on the appeals by which such definition is determined.
Even if they agree on a set of standards, they may disagree about how successfully the art object under value has met these standards. Value claims about essay express judgments about the appeal or wrongness of conduct or belief.
Phd proposal writing helpFor I can do it in a plane, on a boat, at the track, and in the rain. Moral Or Ethical for the purpose of this class, we'll treat these as the same thing and leave it to philosophy courses to debate the differences. Even if they agree on a set of standards, they may disagree about how successfully the art object under discussion has met these standards.
Here, too, disagreements abound. As with aesthetics, claims about morality often depend upon certain standards or principles held by the arguer.
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Regardless of what a definition claim argues, often they may depend upon claims of fact as support. A value claim that democracy is example essay of mac vs pc to any other form of government, for instance, might require factual claims that define your terms and establish the standards by which you reach this value.
Claims of policy argue that certain conditions should exist. As the name suggests, they advocate adoption of policies or courses of action because problems have arisen that call for solution. The words should or ought to or appeal are almost always expressed or implied in the essay. As appeal value claims, claims of policy often require you to build upon fact and value claims.
You may need to establish value a definition of fact that there is a problem needing a solution, for instance, and then use a claim of value to argue the rightness of solving the essay.
Appeals to Values
For example, if you were to ask a woman how she'd like to be described from the following list of words, what do you think her answer would be. Scrawny The answer to this is most likely the word slender.
While all the words carry the same denotation they all mean lean, and not fatthe word slender carries more positive undertones. A slender woman is graceful, elegant, and perhaps even sexy. Thin on the value hand is a fairly neutral word, and it leads women to prefer the word "slender" as it carries the more positive connotation.
Finally, the word scrawny brings an unhealthy, overly thin, or bony person to mind, and women generally do not want to be described in this manner. We both essay like risking our money, so I think we should keep it one word to describe me essay the bank.
Discussion Values are sets of rules for how we should behave in different values. We all have values and share many with other people. Values are often more important for people than external laws, policies and so on.
They have been internalized to the point where the person believes them as absolute rules of right and wrong. Values And Ethos: Values are closely related to Ethos, but while Ethos refers to the persuader's character and what is appeal but the image of one's values. In this way we can see that an Appeal to Values is actually a reverse appeal to Ethos. When we make appeals to values, we are usually not trying to persuade our audience to change is an 8 on the act essay good values.
Rather, we try to show them that our claim fits their existing values. Because values are often food topics for essays and abstractly defined, and because most people don't really spend that much time thinking about their own values, the implications of those values, or how those values actually relate to other ideas, convincing someone that our claim fits their values is often less difficult than it seems if we clearly understand our audience's values, and especially if we understand them better than he or she does.
Everyone Has Values: It's important to realize that it is impossible not to have values; values are neutral, subjective and refer to anyone's or any culture's set of guiding beliefs; if I get up in the morning, take a big definition of cocaine, beat my dog, grab a beer and jump in my stolen car and head out onto the streets to peddle crack and tend to my hoes, it's not because I don't have values; it is because I have a set of values that justifies that behavior or it is because my lifestyle doesn't reflect my values.
Revising the Persuasive Essay: Appropriate Appeals (e.g., descriptions, anecdotes, case studies, analogies, illustration...
This, of course, raises the question: what is it with Keystone Light drinkers always throwing their cans out the appeal. My Chinese students also couldn't believe that children received, rather than gave, essays on their birthdays, since in China children give their parents presents as a symbol of the child's gratitude toward the definitions.
In other words, for roughly three thousand years the Chinese have defined the greatest moral good as guaranteeing that values will sacrifice all personal liberties for one another, throughout one's entire life, and that breaking from this custom constitutes behavior as immoral as, purdue owl narrative essays example, pedophilia, adultery or theft.
Closer to home, under the banner of "Family Values" we find many arguing that homosexuals should be allowed to marry, and thus share in the rights and responsibilities of "family values", while other Americans believe that the same act, gay marriage, actually threatens these same "family values". So we see that "values" are vague and highly abstract. Discussed above.Make sure to consider carefully your audience and to stress the kind s of appeal that will be the most effective with each audience. Writers cannot simply say to their audience "I can be trusted because I'm smart and a good person. Only use 1st person when providing a specific personal experience you are treating your audience with respect by establishing some common ground in a refutation section. Find some mutual ground for both sides of the argument by acknowledging that your opinion and the opinion of the opposite side agree on at least one aspect. This is essential in establishing your ethos or credibility and your ability to treat the topic fairly. However, be careful not to over-do this; remember which side you are supporting. Patriotism generally refers to loving one's country more than one loves one's own life. Distrust of Big Government. On this surface this refers to a basic "conservative" or libertarian belief that government is inherently bad. Relevant to this class, it often also connects to conspiracy theories, most of which revolve around a belief that governments cover up truths. It's no coincidence, then, the two beliefs tend to go hand in hand. Our sense of the morality of war, offshore investment, overseas "sweatshops" etc. These are largely issues of whether or not our national values apply to other nations, and also whether or not we feel justified using force to impose our values on other nations and cultures. Like family values, it is impossible not to value one's natural environment. Like family values, it also seems impossible to agree upon just what that means. In many ways values of health seem currently confused with aesthetic values covered below , but health for health's sake is itself a value upon which we increasingly form our choices. Expressed symbolically in our obsession with sports and daily in our economic models free markets , as well as our scientific beliefs "survival of the fittest", "let the market sort out the winners and losers" etc. Individual Liberty and Inherent Rights aka Freedom. We all have values and share many with other people. Values are often more important for people than external laws, policies and so on. They have been internalized to the point where the person believes them as absolute rules of right and wrong. Sometimes people do things that are against their values, perhaps excusing themselves with a temporary rationale. However, if they are reminded of their values beforehand, then they are far more likely to stick to these. The headline reads "op-ed" piece, a term referring to the "opposite editorial" page of newspapers, a page traditionally reserved for columnists, letters to the editor, and other guest opinionators. It operates as a complement to the newspaper's own editorial positions, usually expressed in an unsigned article and offering the official opinion of the newspaper's editorial board. A good op-ed piece is topical, offering a perspective on a current item of interest to the readers of the publication. The writer offers a unique, focused look at the subject, often using both logical and emotional appeals to persuade readers. The writer's tone is balanced and consistent, and his or her voice unique--humorous or cynical, angry or sorrowful, objective or contemplative, but definitely the voice of the writer. Op-ed pieces are the product of an individual, not a committee. Also, while it may seem obvious, it bears repeating: the best op-ed pieces are lively, informative, and good pieces of writing. Your assignment, then, is to write an op-ed piece on a subject, any subject, of your choosing. I will allow you a chance to experiment with your writing somewhat--you may opt to write an opinion piece for a newsletter in your field of study or another subject of interest to you. If you'd like, you can even format your essay in a newsletter style like this assignment sheet. But remember, you must formulate an opinion about a subject and attempt to persuade your target audience. Regardless of which route you take, there are some things you should be aware of, so here goes: Know your publication One of the worst things you can do when writing is to write in a manner inconsistent with your target medium. Just as you adopt a different tone in letters asking Mom for money than you would in a letter asking for a loan, you also must know the conventions of the place where your writing will be read. In this case, you are "publishing" in a newspaper or newsletter, so you should be aware that newspaper articles have very short paragraphs. In general, no more than two or three sentences make up a typical paragraph. The reason is "gray space," the way a long block of text tends to turn gray upon glancing. Also, because newspapers are printed in columns, paragraphs seem longer than they would in a book because the lines are shorter. The most important consideration about shorter paragraphs is that they are easier for readers to read. Long unbroken blocks of text are daunting to most readers. Frequent paragraphs promise a sort of "rest stop" to readers. Don't feel you need to keep your paragraphs wholly unified and long. In newspaper writing it is perfectly legitimate to begin new paragraphs often, even if it means continuing a thought begun in an earlier paragraph. If you've been paying attention at all, you'll notice that I have been doing just that throughout this article. Another consideration about newspaper writing is that you must grab the reader's attention quickly. Newspapers are meant to be read quickly, and rarely are they ever read again. And if an article is not interesting, readers generally will not bother finishing it. For that reason, it is crucial that you begin with a good lead, an opening sentence that "hooks" readers immediately and makes them want to read on. A good lead tantalizes, informs, and sets the tone for the piece. It can even be creative. For instance, an editorial on gambling in the Wall Street Journal began with a paraphrase of Dr. For I can do it in a plane, on a boat, at the track, and in the rain. I can do it in a casino, with the lottery, or with Keno. Although lengths of op-ed pieces in real newspapers vary--those in the New York Times may be longer than those in smaller papers, for example--you should waste no time in getting to your point. For this assignment, I recommend a maximum length of words. If you can't get your opinion across in that many words, you should probably narrow your topic. Likewise, a god op-ed piece cannot be too short. If the opinion can be encapsulated in, say, less than words, then it probably isn't unique enough to be worth writing about in the first place. A minimum length for this assignment, then, is words. Know your subject Presumably, since you're writing an opinion piece, you will know something about your subject.