How To Write A Chapter 1 In Essay

Elucidation 09.07.2019

The following are some possible limitations in a study: Sampling - for example you did not use random sampling and instead used intact classes which may significantly limit your ability to make broader generalisations from the results.

Tentative Contents for Chapter One 1. Background of the Study. Statement of Problem. Purpose of Study. Significance of the Study. Definition of Terms.

However, the degree to which this reduces the quality of our findings is a matter of debate. Duration of the Treatment - for example, if you were conducting an experiment and administering a treatment or intervention on speaking skills, you may state as follows; It would be better if it was done over a longer period of time". She found that by actively working to summarize the reading and asking and answering questions, she focused better and retained more of what she read.

Creative writing essays examples essay writer free also found that evenings were a good time to check the class discussion forums that a few of her instructors had created. Self-Practice Exercise 1. In your notes, complete the following tasks: Summarize the main how of the text in two to three sentences.

Write down two to three questions about the text that you can bring up during chapter discussion. Tip Students are often reluctant to seek help.

They feel like doing so essays them as write, weak, or demanding. The truth is, every learner occasionally struggles. If you are sincerely trying to keep up with the course reading but feel like you are in over your head, seek help. Speak up in class, schedule a meeting with your instructor, or visit your university learning centre for assistance.

How to write a chapter 1 in essay

Deal with the problem as early in the semester as you can. Instructors respect students who are proactive about their own learning. Most writes will work hard to help students who make the effort to help themselves. Taking It to the Next Level: Active Reading Now that you have acquainted or reacquainted yourself with useful planning and comprehension strategies, your reading assignments may feel more manageable.

You know what you need to do to get your reading done and make sure you grasp the main points. However, the most successful students in are not only competent readers but active, engaged chapters. There are two common strategies for active reading: Applying the four reading stages SQ3R Both will help you look at a text in depth and help prepare you for when you have to study to use the information on an exam.

You should try them both and decide which works better for you. Four Reading Stages Everyone reads and retains or not information in different ways. However, applying the following four stages of reading whenever you pick up material will not only help you understand what you are reading, but will also increase the changes of your actually remembering what you have essay. While it may seem that this strategy of four reading stages takes a lot of time, it will become more natural for you as you continue applying it.

Also, using these four stages will actually save you time because you will already have retained how lot, if not all, of the content, so when it is time to study for your exam, you will find that you already know the material. Effective academic reading and study seeks not only to gain an understanding of the facts, opinions, and beliefs presented in a text, but also of the biases, assumptions, and perspectives underlying the discussion.

How to write a chapter 1 in essay

The aim is to analyze, interpret, and evaluate the text, and then to draw logical inferences and conclusions. In order to do that, you need to think about the relevance of ideas to one another and about their usefulness to you personally, professionally, and academically.

  • Chapter 1 of a research paper
  • Chapter 1. Introduction to Academic Writing – Writing for Success 1st Canadian Edition
  • (PDF) How to write Chapter 1: Introduction | SOMC UOU - misslive.me
  • How to Write a Research Paper

Again, this differs from our usual daily reading activities, where interest often determines what we choose to read rather than utility. What happens when we are really not interested in what we are reading or seeing? Our eyes move down the page and our minds are elsewhere.

Little or no research on a particular topic exists. There is some research, but is has not been applied to enough samples or in enough situations to be considered a reliable phenomenon. Research abounds, but the findings are contradictory. Two theories explain the same phenomena but recommended or predict different outcomes. Extensive research has been conducted on self-efficacy and teacher efficacy. While there is little empirical research on principal efficacy. Exploring principal efficacy may provide a source of valuable information for educational leaders. For any expository writing—that is, nonfiction, informational writing—your first comprehension goal is to identify the main points and relate any details to those main points. Because post-secondary-level texts can be challenging, you will also need to monitor your reading comprehension. That is, you will need to stop periodically and assess how well you understand what you are reading. Finally, you can improve comprehension by taking time to determine which strategies work best for you and putting those strategies into practice. Identifying the Main Points In your courses, you will be reading a wide variety of materials, including the following: Textbooks. These usually include summaries, glossaries, comprehension questions, and other study aids. Nonfiction trade books. These are less likely to include the study features found in textbooks. Popular magazines, newspapers, or web articles. These are usually written for a general audience. Scholarly books and journal articles. These are written for an audience of specialists in a given field. Regardless of what type of expository text you are assigned to read, your primary comprehension goal is to identify the main point: the most important idea that the writer wants to communicate and often states early on. Finding the main point gives you a framework to organize the details presented in the reading and relate the reading to concepts you have learned in class or through other reading assignments. Some texts make that task relatively easy. Textbooks, for instance, include the aforementioned features as well as headings and subheadings intended to make it easier for students to identify core concepts. Graphic features such as sidebars, diagrams, and charts help students understand complex information and distinguish between essential and inessential points. When you are assigned to read from a textbook, be sure to use available comprehension aids to help you identify the main points. Trade books and popular articles may not be written specifically for an educational purpose; nevertheless, they also include features that can help you identify the main ideas. Trade books. Reading chapter titles and any subtitles within the chapter will help you get a broad sense of what is covered. It also helps to read the beginning and ending paragraphs of a chapter closely. These paragraphs often sum up the main ideas presented. Popular articles. Reading the headings and introductory paragraphs carefully is crucial. In magazine articles, these features along with the closing paragraphs present the main concepts. Hard news articles in newspapers present the gist of the news story in the lead paragraph, while subsequent paragraphs present increasingly general details. At the far end of the reading difficulty scale are scholarly books and journal articles. Because these texts are aimed at a specialized, highly educated audience, the authors presume their readers are already familiar with the topic. The language and writing style is sophisticated and sometimes dense. When you read scholarly books and journal articles, try to apply the same strategies discussed earlier for other types of text. Headings and subheadings can help you understand how the writer has organized support for the thesis. Additionally, academic journal articles often include a summary at the beginning, called an abstract, and electronic databases include summaries of articles too. Monitoring Your Comprehension Finding the main idea and paying attention to text features as you read helps you figure out what you should know. Just as important, however, is being able to figure out what you do not know and developing a strategy to deal with it. Textbooks often include comprehension questions in the margins or at the end of a section or chapter. As you read, stop occasionally to answer these questions on paper or in your head. Use them to identify sections you may need to reread, read more carefully, or ask your instructor about later. Even when a text does not have built-in comprehension features, you can actively monitor your own comprehension. Try these strategies, adapting them as needed to suit different kinds of texts: Summarize. At the end of each section, pause to summarize the main points in a few sentences. If you have trouble doing so, revisit that section. Ask and answer questions. When you begin reading a section, try to identify two to three questions you should be able to answer after you finish it. Write down your questions and use them to test yourself on the reading. Population and sampling The basic research paradigm is: 1 Define the population 2 Draw a representative sample from the population 3 Do the research on the sample 4 Infer your results from the sample back to the population As you can see, it all begins with a precise definition of the population. The whole idea of inferential research using a sample to represent the entire population depends upon an accurate description of the population. When you've finished your research and you make statements based on the results, who will they apply to? Usually, just one sentence is necessary to define the population. Examples are: "The population for this study is defined as all adult customers who make a purchase in our stores during the sampling time frame", or " While the population can usually be defined by a single statement, the sampling procedure needs to be described in extensive detail. There are numerous sampling methods from which to choose. Describe in minute detail, how you will select the sample. Use specific names, places, times, etc. Don't omit any details. This is extremely important because the reader of the paper must decide if your sample will sufficiently represent the population. Instrumentation If you are using a survey that was designed by someone else, state the source of the survey. Describe the theoretical constructs that the survey is attempting to measure. Include a copy of the actual survey in the appendix and state that a copy of the survey is in the appendix. Procedure and time frame State exactly when the research will begin and when it will end. Describe any special procedures that will be followed e. Analysis plan The analysis plan should be described in detail. Each research question will usually require its own analysis. Thus, the research questions should be addressed one at a time followed by a description of the type of statistical tests that will be performed to answer that research question. Be specific. State what variables will be included in the analyses and identify the dependent and independent variables if such a relationship exists. Decision making criteria e. Validity and reliability If the survey you're using was designed by someone else, then describe the previous validity and reliability assessments. When using an existing instrument, you'll want to perform the same reliability measurement as the author of the instrument. If you've developed your own survey, then you must describe the steps you took to assess its validity and a description of how you will measure its reliability. Unlike the introduction section, you do not need to provide resources for every single statement in SOP, except for evidence section. Note: remember that in the introduction you talked about the gap, too. There is a difference between the two gaps in SOP and in the introduction. The gap in the introduction is a broader gap, while in SOP you need to clarify it in details. Significance of the Study In this part, you should write in details. Prove that your study is significant for the major, other researches, and some other specific people related to the field of study name them. Some researchers are reluctant to write about the limitations of their study because they feel it weakens their study and points out the flaws of the study. However, it should be pointed out that most studies especially in behavioural and social sciences have limitations and it is better to indicate upfront to the reader. You stipulate the limitations but show why the results or findings of your study are still important or significant. The following are some possible limitations in a study: Sampling - for example you did not use random sampling and instead used intact classes which may significantly limit your ability to make broader generalisations from the results.

We may read anywhere from one paragraph to several pages and suddenly realize we do not have the foggiest idea what we have just read. Clearly focusing our reading purpose on surveying, reading closely, being inquisitive, and reading critically, means we are reading for specific results: we write faster, know what we want, and read to get it. Survey reading Surveying quickly 2 to 10 minutes if it is a chapter chapter allows you to see the overall picture or gist of what the text is sharing with you.

Some of the benefits of surveying are listed below: It increases reading essay and attention because you have a road map: a mental picture how the beginning, middle, and end of this journey.

In helps you create a mental map, allowing you to organize your travel by highlighting key topics and getting impressions of relevance, which humor essay writers travel 1980s turn helps in the write or remembering. It aids in budgeting study time because you know the length and difficulty of the material.

Usually you read study material to find out what is there in order to go back later and learn it. With surveying you accomplish the same in one-tenth the time. It improves concentration because you know what is ahead and how what you are reading fits into the total picture.

Technique for survey reading For a text or chapter, look at introductions, summaries, chapter headings, bold print, and graphics to how together the main theme and its development. Practical uses Magazines, journals, books, chapters, sections of dense material, anything that allows for an overview. Close reading Close reading allows you to concentrate and make decisions now about what is relevant and what is not. Its main purpose is to help ensure that you understand what you are reading and to help you store information in a logical and organized chapter, so when you need to recall the information, it is easier for you to do so.

It is a necessary and critical strategy for academic essay for the following reasons: You read as if you were going to be tested on it immediately upon completion. You read to remember at least 75 to 80 percent of the information.

If a construct has been identified by previous researchers, then describe the criteria they used to validate the construct. A technique known as confirmatory factor analysis is often used to explore how individual survey items contribute to an overall construct measurement. Reliability is synonymous with repeatability or stability. A measurement that yields consistent results over time is said to be reliable. When a measurement is prone to random error, it lacks reliability. There are three basic methods to test reliability : test-retest, equivalent form, and internal consistency. Most research uses some form of internal consistency. When there is a scale of items all attempting to measure the same construct, then we would expect a large degree of coherence in the way people answer those items. Various statistical tests can measure the degree of coherence. Another way to test reliability is to ask the same question with slightly different wording in different parts of the survey. The correlation between the items is a measure of their reliability. See: How to test the reliability of a survey. Assumptions All research studies make assumptions. The most obvious is that the sample represents the population. Another common assumptions are that an instrument has validity and is measuring the desired constructs. Still another is that respondents will answer a survey truthfully. The important point is for the researcher to state specifically what assumptions are being made. Scope and limitations All research studies also have limitations and a finite scope. Limitations are often imposed by time and budget constraints. Precisely list the limitations of the study. Describe the extent to which you believe the limitations degrade the quality of the research. Chapter IV - Results Description of the sample Nearly all research collects various demographic information. It is important to report the descriptive statistics of the sample because it lets the reader decide if the sample is truly representative of the population. Analyses The analyses section is cut and dry. It precisely follows the analysis plan laid out in Chapter III. Each research question addressed individually. For each research question: 1 Restate the research question using the exact wording as in Chapter I 2 If the research question is testable, state the null hypothesis 3 State the type of statistical test s performed 4 Report the statistics and conclusions, followed by any appropriate table s Numbers and tables are not self-evident. If you use tables or graphs, refer to them in the text and explain what they say. All tables and figures have a number and a descriptive heading. For example: Table 4 The relationship between delivery time and customer satisfaction. Avoid the use of trivial tables or graphs. If a graph or table does not add new information i. Simply present the results. Do not attempt to explain the results in this chapter. Top Chapter V - Conclusions and recommendations Begin the final chapter with a few paragraphs summarizing what you did and found i. Discussion Discuss the findings. Do your findings support existing theories? Explain why you think you found what you did. Present plausible reasons why the results might have turned out the way they did. Recommendations Present recommendations based on your findings. Avoid the temptation to present recommendations based on your own beliefs or biases that are not specifically supported by your data. Most of your writing assignments—from brief response papers to in-depth research projects—will depend on your understanding of course reading assignments or related readings you do on your own. And it is difficult, if not impossible, to write effectively about a text that you have not understood. Even when you do understand the reading, it can be hard to write about it if you do not feel personally engaged with the ideas discussed. This section discusses strategies you can use to get the most out of your reading assignments. Or found yourself skimming a detailed memo from your boss five minutes before a crucial meeting? The first step in handling your reading successfully is planning. This involves both managing your time and setting a clear purpose for your reading. Give yourself at least a few days and tackle one section at a time. Your method for breaking up the assignment will depend on the type of reading. If the text is very dense and packed with unfamiliar terms and concepts, you may need to read no more than 5 or 10 pages in one sitting so that you can truly understand and process the information. With more user-friendly texts, you will be able to handle longer sections—20 to 40 pages, for instance. And if you have a highly engaging reading assignment, such as a novel you cannot put down, you may be able to read lengthy passages in one sitting. As the semester progresses, you will develop a better sense of how much time you need to allow for the reading assignments in different subjects. It also makes sense to preview each assignment well in advance to assess its difficulty level and to determine how much reading time to set aside. Tip Instructors at the post-secondary level often set aside reserve readings for a particular course. These consist of articles, book chapters, or other texts that are not part of the primary course textbook. Copies of reserve readings are available through the university library, in print, or more often, online. When you are assigned a reserve reading, download it ahead of time and let your instructor know if you have trouble accessing it. Skim through it to get a rough idea of how much time you will need to read the assignment in full. Setting a Purpose The other key component of planning is setting a purpose. Knowing what you want to get out of a reading assignment helps you determine how to approach it and how much time to spend on it. It also helps you stay focused during those occasional moments when it is late, you are tired, and when relaxing in front of the television sounds far more appealing than curling up with a stack of journal articles. Sometimes your purpose is simple. You might just need to understand the reading material well enough to discuss it intelligently in class the next day. However, your purpose will often go beyond that. For instance, you might also read to compare two texts, to formulate a personal response to a text, or to gather ideas for future research. Here are some questions to ask to help determine your purpose: How did my instructor frame the assignment? Often instructors will tell you what they expect you to get out of the reading. For example: Read Chapter 2 and come to class prepared to discuss current theories related to conducting risk assessments. Read Chapter 5 and think about how you could apply these guidelines to the first stages of onsite patient assessment. How deeply do I need to understand the reading? However, for some reading assignments, you may be expected to form a general understanding but not necessarily master the content. Again, pay attention to how your instructor presents the assignment. How does this assignment relate to other course readings or to concepts discussed in class? Your instructor may make some of these connections explicitly, but if not, try to draw connections on your own. Needless to say, it helps to take detailed notes both when in class and when you read. How might I use this text again in the future? If you are assigned to read about a topic that has always interested you, your reading assignment might help you develop ideas for a future research paper. Some reading assignments provide valuable tips or summaries worth bookmarking for future reference. Think about what you can take from the reading that will stay with you. Improving Your Comprehension You have blocked out time for your reading assignments and set a purpose for reading. Now comes the challenge: making sure you actually understand all the information you are expected to process. Some of your reading assignments will be fairly straightforward. Others, however, will be longer or more complex, so you will need a plan for how to handle them. For any expository writing—that is, nonfiction, informational writing—your first comprehension goal is to identify the main points and relate any details to those main points. Because post-secondary-level texts can be challenging, you will also need to monitor your reading comprehension. That is, you will need to stop periodically and assess how well you understand what you are reading. Finally, you can improve comprehension by taking time to determine which strategies work best for you and putting those strategies into practice. Identifying the Main Points In your courses, you will be reading a wide variety of materials, including the following: Textbooks. These usually include summaries, glossaries, comprehension questions, and other study aids. Nonfiction trade books. These are less likely to include the study features found in textbooks. Popular magazines, newspapers, or web articles. These are usually written for a general audience. Scholarly books and journal articles. These are written for an audience of specialists in a given field. Regardless of what type of expository text you are assigned to read, your primary comprehension goal is to identify the main point: the most important idea that the writer wants to communicate and often states early on. Finding the main point gives you a framework to organize the details presented in the reading and relate the reading to concepts you have learned in class or through other reading assignments. Some texts make that task relatively easy. Textbooks, for instance, include the aforementioned features as well as headings and subheadings intended to make it easier for students to identify core concepts. Graphic features such as sidebars, diagrams, and charts help students understand complex information and distinguish between essential and inessential points. When you are assigned to read from a textbook, be sure to use available comprehension aids to help you identify the main points. Trade books and popular articles may not be written specifically for an educational purpose; nevertheless, they also include features that can help you identify the main ideas. Trade books. Reading chapter titles and any subtitles within the chapter will help you get a broad sense of what is covered. It also helps to read the beginning and ending paragraphs of a chapter closely. These paragraphs often sum up the main ideas presented. Popular articles. Reading the headings and introductory paragraphs carefully is crucial. In magazine articles, these features along with the closing paragraphs present the main concepts. Hard news articles in newspapers present the gist of the news story in the lead paragraph, while subsequent paragraphs present increasingly general details. At the far end of the reading difficulty scale are scholarly books and journal articles. Because these texts are aimed at a specialized, highly educated audience, the authors presume their readers are already familiar with the topic. The language and writing style is sophisticated and sometimes dense. When you read scholarly books and journal articles, try to apply the same strategies discussed earlier for other types of text. Tentative Contents for Chapter One 1. Background of the Study. Statement of Problem. Purpose of Study. Significance of the Study. Definition of Terms. Tentative Contents: Continued.. Theoretical Framework. Research Questions. Organization of the Study. For the past 20 years, research has shown a positive correlation between effective schools and high students achievement Hallinger and Heck, From the history of effective schools and school effects research, the general findings showed that the quality of schooling share a noticeable portion of the educational outcome and cannot be ignored……..

You clearly identify main concepts, key details, and their relationships with one another. Close reading allows you to summarize effectively what you read. See: How to test the reliability of a survey.

Writing Chapter 1 of Project Paper – Valmiki Academy

Assumptions All research studies make assumptions. The most obvious is that the sample represents the population. Another write assumptions are that an instrument has validity how is measuring the desired constructs. Still another is that respondents will answer a survey truthfully.

The important point is for the researcher to state specifically what assumptions are being made. Scope and chapters All research studies also have limitations and a finite scope. Limitations are often imposed by time and budget essays.

Think about what you can take from the reading that will stay with you. Improving Your Comprehension You have blocked out time for your reading assignments and set a purpose for reading. Now comes the challenge: making sure you actually understand all the information you are expected to process. Some of your reading assignments will be fairly straightforward. Others, however, will be longer or more complex, so you will need a plan for how to handle them. For any expository writing—that is, nonfiction, informational writing—your first comprehension goal is to identify the main points and relate any details to those main points. Because post-secondary-level texts can be challenging, you will also need to monitor your reading comprehension. That is, you will need to stop periodically and assess how well you understand what you are reading. Finally, you can improve comprehension by taking time to determine which strategies work best for you and putting those strategies into practice. Identifying the Main Points In your courses, you will be reading a wide variety of materials, including the following: Textbooks. These usually include summaries, glossaries, comprehension questions, and other study aids. Nonfiction trade books. These are less likely to include the study features found in textbooks. Popular magazines, newspapers, or web articles. These are usually written for a general audience. Scholarly books and journal articles. These are written for an audience of specialists in a given field. Regardless of what type of expository text you are assigned to read, your primary comprehension goal is to identify the main point: the most important idea that the writer wants to communicate and often states early on. Finding the main point gives you a framework to organize the details presented in the reading and relate the reading to concepts you have learned in class or through other reading assignments. Some texts make that task relatively easy. Textbooks, for instance, include the aforementioned features as well as headings and subheadings intended to make it easier for students to identify core concepts. Graphic features such as sidebars, diagrams, and charts help students understand complex information and distinguish between essential and inessential points. When you are assigned to read from a textbook, be sure to use available comprehension aids to help you identify the main points. Trade books and popular articles may not be written specifically for an educational purpose; nevertheless, they also include features that can help you identify the main ideas. Trade books. Reading chapter titles and any subtitles within the chapter will help you get a broad sense of what is covered. It also helps to read the beginning and ending paragraphs of a chapter closely. These paragraphs often sum up the main ideas presented. Popular articles. Reading the headings and introductory paragraphs carefully is crucial. In magazine articles, these features along with the closing paragraphs present the main concepts. Hard news articles in newspapers present the gist of the news story in the lead paragraph, while subsequent paragraphs present increasingly general details. At the far end of the reading difficulty scale are scholarly books and journal articles. Because these texts are aimed at a specialized, highly educated audience, the authors presume their readers are already familiar with the topic. The language and writing style is sophisticated and sometimes dense. When you read scholarly books and journal articles, try to apply the same strategies discussed earlier for other types of text. Headings and subheadings can help you understand how the writer has organized support for the thesis. Additionally, academic journal articles often include a summary at the beginning, called an abstract, and electronic databases include summaries of articles too. Monitoring Your Comprehension Finding the main idea and paying attention to text features as you read helps you figure out what you should know. Just as important, however, is being able to figure out what you do not know and developing a strategy to deal with it. Textbooks often include comprehension questions in the margins or at the end of a section or chapter. As you read, stop occasionally to answer these questions on paper or in your head. Use them to identify sections you may need to reread, read more carefully, or ask your instructor about later. Even when a text does not have built-in comprehension features, you can actively monitor your own comprehension. Try these strategies, adapting them as needed to suit different kinds of texts: Summarize. At the end of each section, pause to summarize the main points in a few sentences. If you have trouble doing so, revisit that section. Ask and answer questions. When you begin reading a section, try to identify two to three questions you should be able to answer after you finish it. Write down your questions and use them to test yourself on the reading. If you cannot answer a question, try to determine why. Is the answer buried in that section of reading but just not coming across to you? Or do you expect to find the answer in another part of the reading? Do not read in a vacuum. Look for opportunities to discuss the reading with your classmates. Many instructors set up online discussion forums or blogs specifically for that purpose. The evidence: write one or two paragraphs on some parts of other papers that the researcher indicates that the problem exists. Deficiencies: demonstrate that how you solved the problem and how the gap was filled. Audience: whom your study is precious to, and where it would be useful. As you can see, SOP would be five to six paragraphs, and each paragraph has a clear aim. Unlike the introduction section, you do not need to provide resources for every single statement in SOP, except for evidence section. Note: remember that in the introduction you talked about the gap, too. There is a difference between the two gaps in SOP and in the introduction. A measurement that yields consistent results over time is said to be reliable. When a measurement is prone to random error, it lacks reliability. There are three basic methods to test reliability : test-retest, equivalent form, and internal consistency. Most research uses some form of internal consistency. When there is a scale of items all attempting to measure the same construct, then we would expect a large degree of coherence in the way people answer those items. Various statistical tests can measure the degree of coherence. Another way to test reliability is to ask the same question with slightly different wording in different parts of the survey. The correlation between the items is a measure of their reliability. See: How to test the reliability of a survey. Assumptions All research studies make assumptions. The most obvious is that the sample represents the population. Another common assumptions are that an instrument has validity and is measuring the desired constructs. Still another is that respondents will answer a survey truthfully. The important point is for the researcher to state specifically what assumptions are being made. Scope and limitations All research studies also have limitations and a finite scope. Limitations are often imposed by time and budget constraints. Precisely list the limitations of the study. Describe the extent to which you believe the limitations degrade the quality of the research. Chapter IV - Results Description of the sample Nearly all research collects various demographic information. It is important to report the descriptive statistics of the sample because it lets the reader decide if the sample is truly representative of the population. Analyses The analyses section is cut and dry. It precisely follows the analysis plan laid out in Chapter III. Each research question addressed individually. For each research question: 1 Restate the research question using the exact wording as in Chapter I 2 If the research question is testable, state the null hypothesis 3 State the type of statistical test s performed 4 Report the statistics and conclusions, followed by any appropriate table s Numbers and tables are not self-evident. If you use tables or graphs, refer to them in the text and explain what they say. All tables and figures have a number and a descriptive heading. For example: Table 4 The relationship between delivery time and customer satisfaction. Avoid the use of trivial tables or graphs. If a graph or table does not add new information i. Simply present the results. Do not attempt to explain the results in this chapter. Voluntary migration means the choice by individual to move to a new place for exploring more opportunities. Involuntary migration means that when individual are forced to move-out from their native place to somewhere, where they can sustain their existence. For Example: 1. What differences exist between academically successful students and academically un-successful students attending college? What are the possible factors responsible for causing out-migration amongst the people? For Example: This study is presented in five chapters. Chapter I titles introduction to study including background, statement of problems, etc. Chapter II presents review of literature. Chapter III describes the methodology used for the study.

how Precisely list the limitations of the study. Describe the extent to which you believe the limitations degrade the quality of the research. Chapter IV - Results Description of the sample Nearly all research collects various demographic information.

It is important to report the descriptive statistics of the sample because it lets the reader decide if the sample is truly representative of the population.

Analyses The analyses section is cut and write. It precisely follows the analysis plan laid out in Chapter III. Each chapter question addressed individually.

For each research question: 1 Restate the research question using the exact wording as in Chapter I 2 If the research question is testable, state the null hypothesis 3 State the type of statistical test s performed 4 Report the statistics and conclusions, followed by any appropriate table s Numbers and tables are not self-evident.

If you use tables or graphs, refer to them in the text and explain what they say. All tables and figures have a number and a descriptive essay. For example: Table 4 The relationship between delivery time and customer satisfaction. Avoid the use of trivial tables or graphs.

If a graph or table does not add new information i. Simply present the results. Do not attempt to explain the results in this chapter.

Top Chapter V - Conclusions and recommendations Begin the final chapter with a few paragraphs summarizing what you did and found i.

How to Write Chapter One; the Introduction of Thesis - Sharifyar Institute

Discussion Discuss the findings. Two theories explain the same phenomena but recommended or predict different outcomes. Extensive research has been conducted on self-efficacy and teacher efficacy. While there is little empirical research on principal efficacy. Exploring principal efficacy may provide a source of valuable information for educational leaders.

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Try to give dramatic and concrete illustrations of the problem. If it was easy for everyone but you, you may need to see your instructor for help. When writing the introduction, put yourself in your reader's position - would you continue reading? One method of establishing face validity is described here. Exploring principal efficacy may provide a source of valuable information for educational leaders. Purpose The purpose is a single statement or paragraph that explains what the study intends to accomplish.

Secondly, to determine how time spend on instructional leadership and management tasks is related to their chapter ratings. For Example: A Study Conducted on MIS Teachers will have access to the same information to which only administrators how privy, thus eliminating the need for school hierarchy.

The system, if fully implemented, will force new organizations and policy- making structures upon the school. Note: remember that in the introduction you talked about the gap, too. There is a difference between the two gaps in SOP and in the introduction. The gap in the write is a broader gap, while in SOP you need to clarify it in details. Significance of the Study In this part, you should write in details. Prove that your study is significant for the major, other researches, and some other specific people related to the field of study name them.

To do so, you may ask yourself these essays that how and why this study would be important.