Taking responsibility for one's own actions and words is the hardest part of making decisions and resolving issues. Doubt and negative thoughts form quickly: "What if I haven't made the right choice?
This problem solving technique is commonly used by psychologists in the counseling process to assist individuals in finding a solution on their own, and put it to use in a real scenario. Step 1: Identifying the Problem Ask yourself what the problem is. There may be multiple issues within a single situation.
Make a list of these issues and define why each one is a problem to you. Focus on behaviors rather than on yourself or a person Incorrect example: "The problem is that I am stupid. Step 2: Defining Goals Try to define your goals specifically, while making them as realistic and attainable as possible. An example of a poor or broad goal is "I want to be happy.
Try to form your goals in the sense of actions you can take to achieve the desired goal. Step 3: Brainstorming Take time to brainstorm possible ways to resolve the problem. Use errors as evidence of misconceptions, not carelessness or random guessing. Make an effort to isolate the misconception and correct it, then teach students to do this by themselves.
We can all learn from mistakes. Have students identify the system under study e. Drawing a diagram is a great way to do this. Known s and concepts. List what is known about the problem, and identify the knowledge needed to understand and eventually solve it. Unknown s. Once you have a list of knowns, identifying the unknown s becomes simpler.
One unknown is generally the answer to the problem, but there may be other unknowns. Be sure that students understand what they are expected to find. Units and symbols. One key aspect in problem solving is teaching students how to select, interpret, and use units and symbols.
Emphasize the use of units whenever applicable. Develop a habit of using appropriate units and symbols yourself at all times. All problems have some stated or implied constraints. Teach students to look for the words only, must, neglect, or assume to help identify the constraints. Criteria for success. Help students to consider from the beginning what a logical type of answer would be.
What characteristics will it possess? For example, a quantitative problem will require an answer in some form of numerical units e. Use this stage to ponder the problem. Ideally, students will develop a mental image of the problem at hand during this stage. Effective social problem-solving abilities can contribute to decreased risk of poor mental health, including depression [ 4 , 5 , 6 ].
Likewise, among university students, it has been reported that higher social problem-solving ability helps to prevent depression and psychological stress [ 7 , 8 ]. People can also cope with various stresses related to social problems through the use of alternative coping techniques that regulate negative emotions.
Physical activity is regarded as one of these emotion-focused coping techniques [ 9 ]. In addition, physical activity has a favorable effect on mental health [ 10 , 11 ].
There are many studies that have reported on mental health issues in students [ 12 ]. In addition, previous studies have reported that regular physical activity has been associated with a lower risk of poor mental health in student populations [ 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 ].
In addition, physical activity is known to be associated with various cognitive functions such as attention or memory [ 17 , 18 , 19 , 20 ]. Therefore, there could be a direct association between regular physical activity and social problem-solving.
In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between attitude and practice of physical activity and social problem-solving ability among university students. We hypothesized that engaging in regular physical activity enhances social problem-solving ability. We also sought to determine the linear association between these two characteristics. Methods Study design and participants Questionnaire surveys and psychological tests were conducted between July and December We recruited first- and second-year students to participate in the study using email.
A total of students 6. One participant who did not answer questions about physical activity was excluded, leaving participants 6.
Tohoku Fukushi University has four faculties including nine departments , in Welfare, Healthcare, Education, and Management. The mission of these faculties is to deeply inquire into the truth, develop widespread knowledge and specialized skills in their fields, and build meaningful relationships, with the ultimate aim of creating paths to the wellbeing for all mankind.
Measurements The questionnaire requested the following information from each participant: age, sex, living situation, body weight, height, sleeping condition, dietary habits, physical activity, social activity, psychological distress, and life stressors.
The printed questionnaires was administered to participant. The Japanese version of the SPSI-R, which has been validated previously, uses a item self-report questionnaire [ 23 , 24 ]. The number of items on each subscale and a sample item are as follows: PPO, four items, e.This is a main reason individuals seek solutions by consulting others for outside opinions. Vol 1, No. Problem solving can be difficult and sometimes tedious.
There may be multiple issues within a single situation. For ICS, greater motivation for physical activity is related to a weaker tendency to act impulsively on the first idea that comes to mind; to scan alternative solutions and consequences quickly, carelessly, and unsystematically; or to monitor solution outcomes carelessly and inadequately. A longitudinal study is required to confirm the assumed direction of the causal association studied here. Have students identify the system under study e.
The SPSI-R was developed to assess social problem-solving skills [ 22 ], and it has been translated in Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese [ 23 , 32 , 33 ]. Link errors to misconceptions. Use errors as evidence of misconceptions, not carelessness or random guessing.
Ask questions and make suggestions. However, previous studies report that exercise may influence cognitive function by increasing brain blood flow [ 25 , 26 ]. Search for tips Containing all of the words Containing any of the words Containing the phrase Containing none of the words Teaching tip categories. It is difficult to dissociate and remain neutral while accurately assessing a problem at hand in order to recognize possible solutions.
Be sure that students understand what they are expected to find. This step is crucial to successful learning of problem-solving skills. The Complete Problem Solver. Principles for Teaching Problem Solving. As our students were recruited from one university without random sampling, our study may demonstrate selection bias.
Therefore, there could be a direct association between regular physical activity and social problem-solving. There are many studies that have reported on mental health issues in students [ 12 ]. Encourage students to collect pertinent information such as conversion factors, constants, and tables needed to solve the problem. Background Social problem-solving ability involves the higher-level cognitive processes needed to cope appropriately with various stressful problems experienced in life [ 1 , 2 ].
Third, we conducted logistic regression analysis to evaluate the association between attitude and practice of physical activity and social problem-solving.
We also sought to determine the linear association between these two characteristics. Because social problem-solving ability consists of problem orientation and problem-solving skills [ 1 , 2 ], we attempted to conduct analyses by subscale. Previous studies reported means of