Reactivity Profile Tetrahydrofuran reacts violently with oxidizing agents leading to fires and explosions [Handling Chemicals Safely Subject to peroxidation in the air. Peroxides or their products react exothermically with lithium aluminum hydride [MCA Guide for Safety ].
Thus, use as a solvent for lithium aluminum hydride has led to fires. Using potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide to dry impure Tetrahydrofuran that contains peroxides has resulted in explosions. A violent explosion occurred during the preparation of sodium aluminum hydride from sodium and aluminum in a medium of Tetrahydrofuran [Chem.
News 39 40 THF forms explosive products with 2-aminophenol [Lewis ]. Health Hazard Vapors cause nausea, dizziness, headache, and anesthesia. Liquid can de-fat the skin and cause irritation.
Liquid also irritates eyes. Liquid THF is a severe eye irritant and a mild skin irritant, but is not a skin sensitizer. At vapor levels of to ppm, THF irritates the eyes and upper respiratory tract. At high concentrations 25, ppm , THF vapor can produce anesthetic effects. Since the odor threshold for THF is well below the permissible exposure limit, this substance is regarded as having good warning properties.
Limited animal testing indicates that THF is not carcinogenic and shows developmental effects only at exposure levels producing other toxic effects in adult animals.
Bacterial and mammalian cell culture studies demonstrate no mutagenic activity with THF. Health Hazard The toxicity of tetrahydrofuran is of loworder in animals and humans. The targetorgans are primarily the respiratory systemand central nervous system. It is an irritantto the upper respiratory tract and eyes. At high concentrations it exhibits anestheticproperties similar to those of many loweraliphatic ethers. Exposure to concentrationsabove 25, ppm in air can cause anesthesiain humans.
Inhalationof high concentrations of vapors or ingestionof the liquid also causes nausea, vomiting,and severe headache. Carbon dioxide or dry chemical extinguishers should be used for THF fires.
THF can form shockand heat-sensitive peroxides, which may explode on concentration by distillation or evaporation. Always test samples of THF for the presence of peroxides before distilling or allowing to evaporate. THF should never be distilled to dryness. THF can form shock- and heat-sensitive peroxides, which may explode on concentration by distillation or evaporation. Industrial uses Tetrahydrofuran THF , the saturated derivative of furan, when used as a solvent for high molecular weight polyvinyl chloride PVC , vinyl chloride copolymers, and polyvinylidene chloride copolymers at ambient temperatures yields solutions of high solids content.
Blends of THF and methyl ethyl ketone are often used for increased solvency in certain polymer compositions. Polyvinyl chloride pipe welding cements are made by dissolving the resin in THF solvent. Other adhesive applications include cements for leather, plastic sheeting, and for molded plastic assemblies. Other uses of THF are as a chemical intermediate and as a complexing solvent for various inorganic, organometallic, and organic compounds.
These THF complexes are important as Grignard reagents, catalysts for organic reactions, and in stereo-specific polymerizations. Tetrahydrofuran is the solvent of choice in many pharmaceutical reactions and applications. The excellent solvency of THF makes this solvent ideal for solvent cleaning of polymer manufacturing and processing equipment. Safety Profile Moderately toxic by ingestion and intraperitoneal routes. Mildly toxic by inhalation. Human systemic effects by inhalation: general anesthesia.
Mutation data reported. Irritant to eyes and mucous membranes. Narcotic in high concentrations. Reported as causing injury to liver and kidneys. Flammable liquid. A very dangerous fire hazard when exposed to heat, flames, oxidizers. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame.
In common with ethers, unstabilized tetrahydrofuran forms thermally explosive peroxides on exposure to air. Stored THF must always be tested for peroxide prior to distdlation. Peroxides can be removed by treatment with strong ferrous sulfate solution made slightly acidic with sodium bisulfate. Caustic alkalies deplete the inhibitor in THF and may subsequently cause an explosive reaction. Reacts with lithium tetrahydroaluminate or borane to form explosive hydrogen gas. Violent reaction with metal halides e.
Can react with oxidizing materials. To fight fire, use foam, dry chemical, COa. Furan is thus derivable from renewable resources. It is a moderately polar solvent and can dissolve a wide range of nonpolar and polar chemical compounds. THF is often used in polymer science. For example, it can be used to dissolve polymers prior to determining their molecular mass using gel permeation chromatography.
It can be used to liquefy old PVC cement and is often used industrially to degrease metal parts. THF is used as a component in mobile phases for reversed-phase liquid chromatography. It has a greater elution strength than methanol or acetonitrile , but is less commonly used than these solvents. It can be used to clean clogged 3D printer parts, as well as when finishing prints to remove extruder lines and add a shine to the finished product.
To fight fire, use foam, dry chemical, COa. THF is used as a component in mobile phases for reversed-phase liquid chromatography. Other adhesive applications include cements for leather, plastic sheeting, and for molded plastic assemblies. Contact with lithium—aluminium hydride, with other lithium—aluminium alloys, or with sodium or potassium hydroxide can be hazardous. In the synthesis of butyrolactone, succinic acid, 1,4-butanediol diacetate.
The solvent is kept in contact with the alloy until distilled for use. Lithium wire or vigorously stirred molten potassium have also been used for this purpose. Worsfold and Bywater [J Chem Soc ], after refluxing and distilling from P2O5 and KOH, in turn, refluxed the solvent with sodium-potassium alloy and fluorenone until the green colour of the disodium salt of fluorenone was well established. To fight fire, use foam, dry chemical, COa.
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Uses Butylene oxide is used as a fumigant and inadmixture with other compounds. Irritant to eyes and mucous membranes. Chemical Properties Tetrahydrofuran THF, tetramethylene oxide, diethylene oxide, 1,4-epoxybutane, tetrahydrofurane, oxolane is an industrial solvent widely recognized for its unique combination of useful properties. In common with ethers, unstabilized tetrahydrofuran forms thermally explosive peroxides on exposure to air. Although THF is traditionally dried by distillation from an aggressive desiccant , molecular sieves are superior.
Uses Butylene oxide is used as a fumigant and inadmixture with other compounds. THF is used as an intermediate in the production of polytetramethylene glycol. Distillations should always be done in the presence of a reducing agent, e.
Concentrated waste containing peroxides-perforation of a container of the waste from a safe distance followed by open burning. Blends of THF and methyl ethyl ketone are often used for increased solvency in certain polymer compositions. Polyvinyl chloride pipe welding cements are made by dissolving the resin in THF solvent. Manufacturing activities commonly occur in closed systems or under engineering controls that limit worker exposure and release to the environment. Worsfold and Bywater [J Chem Soc ], after refluxing and distilling from P2O5 and KOH, in turn, refluxed the solvent with sodium-potassium alloy and fluorenone until the green colour of the disodium salt of fluorenone was well established.
It is a popular solvent for hydroboration reactions and for organometallic compounds such as organolithium and Grignard reagents. CaH2 has also been used as a drying agent. Since the odor threshold for THF is well below the permissible exposure limit, this substance is regarded as having good warning properties. It is also used to cast polyvinyl chloride films, to coat substrates with vinyl and vinylidene chloride; and to solubilize adhesives based on or containing polyvinyl chloride resins. Explosive in the form of vapor when exposed to heat or flame.