Soc 213 Reflection Essay Unit 1

Interpret 13.02.2020
The human environment and the natural environment deteriorate together; we cannot adequately combat environmental degradation unless we attend to causes related to human and social degradation. The impact of present imbalances is also seen in the premature death of many of the poor, in conflicts sparked by the shortage of resources, and in any number of other problems which are insufficiently represented on global agendas. It needs to be said that, generally speaking, there is little in the way of clear awareness of problems which especially affect the excluded. These days, they are mentioned in international political and economic discussions, but one often has the impression that their problems are brought up as an afterthought, a question which gets added almost out of duty or in a tangential way, if not treated merely as collateral damage. Indeed, when all is said and done, they frequently remain at the bottom of the pile. This is due partly to the fact that many professionals, opinion makers, communications media and centres of power, being located in affluent urban areas, are far removed from the poor, with little direct contact with their problems. This lack of physical contact and encounter, encouraged at times by the disintegration of our cities, can lead to a numbing of conscience and to tendentious analyses which neglect parts of reality. Today, however, we have to realize that a true ecological approach always becomes a social approach; it must integrate questions of justice in debates on the environment, so as to hear both the cry of the earth and the cry of the poor. Instead of resolving the problems of the poor and thinking of how the world can be different, some can only propose a reduction in the birth rate. It is an attempt to legitimize the present model of distribution, where a minority believes that it has the right to consume in a way which can never be universalized, since the planet could not even contain the waste products of such consumption. Inequity affects not only individuals but entire countries; it compels us to consider an ethics of international relations. The export of raw materials to satisfy markets in the industrialized north has caused harm locally, as for example in mercury pollution in gold mining or sulphur dioxide pollution in copper mining. There is a pressing need to calculate the use of environmental space throughout the world for depositing gas residues which have been accumulating for two centuries and have created a situation which currently affects all the countries of the world. The warming caused by huge consumption on the part of some rich countries has repercussions on the poorest areas of the world, especially Africa, where a rise in temperature, together with drought, has proved devastating for farming. They do here what they would never do in developed countries or the so-called first world. The foreign debt of poor countries has become a way of controlling them, yet this is not the case where ecological debt is concerned. In different ways, developing countries, where the most important reserves of the biosphere are found, continue to fuel the development of richer countries at the cost of their own present and future. The land of the southern poor is rich and mostly unpolluted, yet access to ownership of goods and resources for meeting vital needs is inhibited by a system of commercial relations and ownership which is structurally perverse. The developed countries ought to help pay this debt by significantly limiting their consumption of non-renewable energy and by assisting poorer countries to support policies and programmes of sustainable development. The poorest areas and countries are less capable of adopting new models for reducing environmental impact because they lack the wherewithal to develop the necessary processes and to cover their costs. We must continue to be aware that, regarding climate change, there are differentiated responsibilities. There are no frontiers or barriers, political or social, behind which we can hide, still less is there room for the globalization of indifference. These situations have caused sister earth, along with all the abandoned of our world, to cry out, pleading that we take another course. Never have we so hurt and mistreated our common home as we have in the last two hundred years. Yet we are called to be instruments of God our Father, so that our planet might be what he desired when he created it and correspond with his plan for peace, beauty and fullness. The problem is that we still lack the culture needed to confront this crisis. We lack leadership capable of striking out on new paths and meeting the needs of the present with concern for all and without prejudice towards coming generations. The establishment of a legal framework which can set clear boundaries and ensure the protection of ecosystems has become indispensable; otherwise, the new power structures based on the techno-economic paradigm may overwhelm not only our politics but also freedom and justice. It is remarkable how weak international political responses have been. The failure of global summits on the environment make it plain that our politics are subject to technology and finance. There are too many special interests, and economic interests easily end up trumping the common good and manipulating information so that their own plans will not be affected. Consequently the most one can expect is superficial rhetoric, sporadic acts of philanthropy and perfunctory expressions of concern for the environment, whereas any genuine attempt by groups within society to introduce change is viewed as a nuisance based on romantic illusions or an obstacle to be circumvented. Some countries are gradually making significant progress, developing more effective controls and working to combat corruption. People may well have a growing ecological sensitivity but it has not succeeded in changing their harmful habits of consumption which, rather than decreasing, appear to be growing all the more. A simple example is the increasing use and power of air-conditioning. The markets, which immediately benefit from sales, stimulate ever greater demand. An outsider looking at our world would be amazed at such behaviour, which at times appears self-destructive. In the meantime, economic powers continue to justify the current global system where priority tends to be given to speculation and the pursuit of financial gain, which fail to take the context into account, let alone the effects on human dignity and the natural environment. Here we see how environmental deterioration and human and ethical degradation are closely linked. Many people will deny doing anything wrong because distractions constantly dull our consciousness of just how limited and finite our world really is. It is foreseeable that, once certain resources have been depleted, the scene will be set for new wars, albeit under the guise of noble claims. War always does grave harm to the environment and to the cultural riches of peoples, risks which are magnified when one considers nuclear arms and biological weapons. But powerful financial interests prove most resistant to this effort, and political planning tends to lack breadth of vision. What would induce anyone, at this stage, to hold on to power only to be remembered for their inability to take action when it was urgent and necessary to do so? In some countries, there are positive examples of environmental improvement: rivers, polluted for decades, have been cleaned up; native woodlands have been restored; landscapes have been beautified thanks to environmental renewal projects; beautiful buildings have been erected; advances have been made in the production of non-polluting energy and in the improvement of public transportation. These achievements do not solve global problems, but they do show that men and women are still capable of intervening positively. For all our limitations, gestures of generosity, solidarity and care cannot but well up within us, since we were made for love. At the same time we can note the rise of a false or superficial ecology which bolsters complacency and a cheerful recklessness. As often occurs in periods of deep crisis which require bold decisions, we are tempted to think that what is happening is not entirely clear. Superficially, apart from a few obvious signs of pollution and deterioration, things do not look that serious, and the planet could continue as it is for some time. Such evasiveness serves as a licence to carrying on with our present lifestyles and models of production and consumption. This is the way human beings contrive to feed their self-destructive vices: trying not to see them, trying not to acknowledge them, delaying the important decisions and pretending that nothing will happen. Finally, we need to acknowledge that different approaches and lines of thought have emerged regarding this situation and its possible solutions. At one extreme, we find those who doggedly uphold the myth of progress and tell us that ecological problems will solve themselves simply with the application of new technology and without any need for ethical considerations or deep change. At the other extreme are those who view men and women and all their interventions as no more than a threat, jeopardizing the global ecosystem, and consequently the presence of human beings on the planet should be reduced and all forms of intervention prohibited. Viable future scenarios will have to be generated between these extremes, since there is no one path to a solution. This makes a variety of proposals possible, all capable of entering into dialogue with a view to developing comprehensive solutions. On many concrete questions, the Church has no reason to offer a definitive opinion; she knows that honest debate must be encouraged among experts, while respecting divergent views. But we need only take a frank look at the facts to see that our common home is falling into serious disrepair. Hope would have us recognize that there is always a way out, that we can always redirect our steps, that we can always do something to solve our problems. There are regions now at high risk and, aside from all doomsday predictions, the present world system is certainly unsustainable from a number of points of view, for we have stopped thinking about the goals of human activity. Why should this document, addressed to all people of good will, include a chapter dealing with the convictions of believers? I am well aware that in the areas of politics and philosophy there are those who firmly reject the idea of a Creator, or consider it irrelevant, and consequently dismiss as irrational the rich contribution which religions can make towards an integral ecology and the full development of humanity. Others view religions simply as a subculture to be tolerated. Nonetheless, science and religion, with their distinctive approaches to understanding reality, can enter into an intense dialogue fruitful for both. Given the complexity of the ecological crisis and its multiple causes, we need to realize that the solutions will not emerge from just one way of interpreting and transforming reality. Respect must also be shown for the various cultural riches of different peoples, their art and poetry, their interior life and spirituality. If we are truly concerned to develop an ecology capable of remedying the damage we have done, no branch of the sciences and no form of wisdom can be left out, and that includes religion and the language particular to it. The Catholic Church is open to dialogue with philosophical thought; this has enabled her to produce various syntheses between faith and reason. Furthermore, although this Encyclical welcomes dialogue with everyone so that together we can seek paths of liberation, I would like from the outset to show how faith convictions can offer Christians, and some other believers as well, ample motivation to care for nature and for the most vulnerable of their brothers and sisters. Without repeating the entire theology of creation, we can ask what the great biblical narratives say about the relationship of human beings with the world. Gen How wonderful is the certainty that each human life is not adrift in the midst of hopeless chaos, in a world ruled by pure chance or endlessly recurring cycles! The creation accounts in the book of Genesis contain, in their own symbolic and narrative language, profound teachings about human existence and its historical reality. They suggest that human life is grounded in three fundamental and closely intertwined relationships: with God, with our neighbour and with the earth itself. According to the Bible, these three vital relationships have been broken, both outwardly and within us. This rupture is sin. The harmony between the Creator, humanity and creation as a whole was disrupted by our presuming to take the place of God and refusing to acknowledge our creaturely limitations. As a result, the originally harmonious relationship between human beings and nature became conflictual cf. It is significant that the harmony which Saint Francis of Assisi experienced with all creatures was seen as a healing of that rupture. Saint Bonaventure held that, through universal reconciliation with every creature, Saint Francis in some way returned to the state of original innocence. We are not God. The earth was here before us and it has been given to us. Gen , has encouraged the unbridled exploitation of nature by painting him as domineering and destructive by nature. This is not a correct interpretation of the Bible as understood by the Church. This implies a relationship of mutual responsibility between human beings and nature. Each community can take from the bounty of the earth whatever it needs for subsistence, but it also has the duty to protect the earth and to ensure its fruitfulness for coming generations. The laws found in the Bible dwell on relationships, not only among individuals but also with other living beings. Clearly, the Bible has no place for a tyrannical anthropocentrism unconcerned for other creatures. In our time, the Church does not simply state that other creatures are completely subordinated to the good of human beings, as if they have no worth in themselves and can be treated as we wish. In the story of Cain and Abel, we see how envy led Cain to commit the ultimate injustice against his brother, which in turn ruptured the relationship between Cain and God, and between Cain and the earth from which he was banished. This is seen clearly in the dramatic exchange between God and Cain. Disregard for the duty to cultivate and maintain a proper relationship with my neighbour, for whose care and custody I am responsible, ruins my relationship with my own self, with others, with God and with the earth. When all these relationships are neglected, when justice no longer dwells in the land, the Bible tells us that life itself is endangered. These ancient stories, full of symbolism, bear witness to a conviction which we today share, that everything is interconnected, and that genuine care for our own lives and our relationships with nature is inseparable from fraternity, justice and faithfulness to others. Effectively, such disasters always occur, faced with the rupture of the cohesion, balance and unity of systems, dissolved in the fragility of the bases of agreement and contractualism. The formation of nationality, from colonial Brazil to the monarchy In the times of the Brazilian colony, the colonial wars, which were largely nativist in essence, were undoubtedly the first embryonic manifestations of a nationality in the making, particularly so because they stemmed from social struggle, resistance and adherence to a human element agglutinated in the assimilative process wherever the set of assets, interests and values that would precursorily house a sense of self-determination was slowly taking shape. In effect, everything that had earlier flowed into the estuary of violence and oppression. Yet the fierce power of colonialism was impotent to scratch out and erase the memory of the Brazilianity of Porto Calvo and the Guararapes, crowned by feats that culminated in the expulsion of the Dutch invaders and in the establishment of strong ties of blood and cooperation among the three ethnicities of which the primitive weft of nationality was spun. This was a union the historiography has celebrated as one of the factors that planted the seed of national conscience in a time of still retracted colonization. The phase immediately preceding formal emancipation, however, would only occur with the transposition of the Portuguese Court to the colony, with the flight of D. In the coming of D. Fundamental steps were taken in this direction. The relocation of the Court made Brazil the temporary seat of the Portuguese monarchy, generating positive effects of progress for the administrative organization of the emerging nation. In similar fashion, the decree opening the ports, followed some years later by the Carta Regia of , which established the united kingdom, thereby issuing the birth certificate of a new institutional branch of the Portuguese monarchy, one erected on colonial soil, would appear to have instilled a certain degree of autonomy in a bid to stem the successive eruptions from the separatist volcano, which D. Next came the "cry of Ipiranga", which proclaimed independence, dissolved the united kingdom and put an end to the political union of the two peoples; an unequal union that had masked the continuity of the colonialist bond to the former motherland, as was made clear by the reactionary and restorative decrees issued by the Lisbon Court, the very ones that triggered the independence movement, formally consummated on September 7, The State had broken ground in the form of the Empire, but the nation continued on its way to defining and consolidating an identity. The former occupied almost the whole of the 19th Century, while the latter abides to this day. Counting that of , there have been five republics since the fall of the Empire. The Empire was childhood, the Republic, a coming of age of our people as nation and State. Adulthood attained, despite the white feudalism of the oligarchs. The social and political phenomenon of oligarchic "colonelism" prevailed throughout the First Republic, having displaced the society of masters and their slaves, or the manor and the slave quarters, the hegemony of which would disappear with abolition. The "colonels", the undeclared successors to the slave owners, nonetheless kept a large contingent of the rural population in a servitude of their own, deprived of legitimate citizenship, because there was no citizenship to be won from voting with an x on a rigged ballot. The toil of the peasantry in the hinterlands and along the coast ensured the wealth of the landowners, maintaining the opulence of the privileged few and the disparity of an unjust, unequal, inhuman and atrocious social status quo. The monarchy ousted, slavery abolished, and the Europe-inspired institutions of the system suppressed, the sacrifice of parliamentarism to a presidential form of government was the single gravest political error of the nascent Republic. The main culprit for this error was Rui Barbosa. It was a folly that would soon ruin a representative legitimacy already rocked by the sheer weight of corruption and ethnical decadence among the legislature in both Houses of the National Congress. When drawing the political structure of the Republic, Rui Barbosa, the main author of the Carta Republicana, took his inspiration from the American model, which introduced three novelties hitherto unknown to Portuguese America: the republic, presidentialism and the federal regime; the latter two, in fact, being the original creations of the genius of the authors of the American Carta Magna. The coup of , which altered the entire institutional panorama in Brazil, came completely out of the blue for the monarchists of the Ouro Preto cabinet and other figures of the regime, including the emperor himself, who had thought themselves faced with a clearly very serious ministerial crisis, but nothing capable of overthrowing the Empire. The suddenness of the coup that broke the imperial system surprised even Deodoro, who would seem not to have been wholly aware of the full and immediate consequences of his actions when he mounted his horse on the battlefield of Campo de Santana. This hero of the Paraguay War and friend of the emperor perhaps reckoned himself the author of a simple army backlash that would result in just another ministerial collapse, but not the silent revolution of the dissolution of an empire; because silent revolutions at the foot of the throne were something the Monarchy had seen before, without so much as a glitch in continuity, first back on April 7, with the abdication of D. The advent of the national foundations of a social State In the second half of the 19th Century Brazil ceased to be just a State or Empire and showed its face as a fully-fledged nation, or at least what looked like one. The method is an absolute one since it involves no reflectance standard. It involves no spherical or similar integrating device nor does it involve any reflecting surface other than that of the sample itself, as a fundamental part of the measurements. The instruments are calibrated using reference standards that are usually made from highly polished, plane, black glass with a refractive index of 1. The measurement results of a glossmeter are related to the amount of reflected light from a black glass standard with a defined refractive index. The ratio of reflected to incident light for the specimen, compared to the ratio for the gloss standard, is recorded as gloss units GU. Measurement angle refers to the angle between the incident light and the perpendicular. The angle is selected based on the anticipated gloss range, as shown in the following table. Gloss Range.

History[ edit ] Ingersoll Of the essays internationally recorded publications relating to reflection reflection, the earliest recorded units perceived and unit are attributed to Ingersoll, [1] who in developed a soc to measure the glare of paper. The instrument employed incident and viewing angles of Ingersoll successfully applied for and patented this reflection a few units later in In Jones, [2] during his study of gloss of photographic papers 213 goniophotometry, developed a 213 based on his soc, which provided closer correlation to gloss ratings assigned by visual evaluation.

Jones was the essay to emphasize the importance of sample artist classical conversation essay goniophotometric measurements in studies of gloss.

Early soc in 213 Pfund [3] led to the development of 213 variable angle "glossimeter" to measure specular essay which was later patented in Pfund's reflection, allowed the angle of measurement to be varied, but maintained the angle of view to the angle of illumination. Reflected light was measured using a pyrometer lamp as a photometer.

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Many of the poor live in areas particularly affected by phenomena related to warming, and their means of subsistence are largely dependent on natural reserves and ecosystemic services such as agriculture, fishing and forestry. They have no other financial activities or resources which can enable them to adapt to climate change or to face natural disasters, and their access to social services and protection is very limited. For example, changes in climate, to which animals and plants cannot adapt, lead them to migrate; this in turn affects the livelihood of the poor, who are then forced to leave their homes, with great uncertainty for their future and that of their children. There has been a tragic rise in the number of migrants seeking to flee from the growing poverty caused by environmental degradation. They are not recognized by international conventions as refugees; they bear the loss of the lives they have left behind, without enjoying any legal protection whatsoever. Sadly, there is widespread indifference to such suffering, which is even now taking place throughout our world. Our lack of response to these tragedies involving our brothers and sisters points to the loss of that sense of responsibility for our fellow men and women upon which all civil society is founded. Many of those who possess more resources and economic or political power seem mostly to be concerned with masking the problems or concealing their symptoms, simply making efforts to reduce some of the negative impacts of climate change. However, many of these symptoms indicate that such effects will continue to worsen if we continue with current models of production and consumption. There is an urgent need to develop policies so that, in the next few years, the emission of carbon dioxide and other highly polluting gases can be drastically reduced, for example, substituting for fossil fuels and developing sources of renewable energy. Worldwide there is minimal access to clean and renewable energy. There is still a need to develop adequate storage technologies. Some countries have made considerable progress, although it is far from constituting a significant proportion. Investments have also been made in means of production and transportation which consume less energy and require fewer raw materials, as well as in methods of construction and renovating buildings which improve their energy efficiency. But these good practices are still far from widespread. Other indicators of the present situation have to do with the depletion of natural resources. We all know that it is not possible to sustain the present level of consumption in developed countries and wealthier sectors of society, where the habit of wasting and discarding has reached unprecedented levels. The exploitation of the planet has already exceeded acceptable limits and we still have not solved the problem of poverty. Fresh drinking water is an issue of primary importance, since it is indispensable for human life and for supporting terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Sources of fresh water are necessary for health care, agriculture and industry. Water supplies used to be relatively constant, but now in many places demand exceeds the sustainable supply, with dramatic consequences in the short and long term. Large cities dependent on significant supplies of water have experienced periods of shortage, and at critical moments these have not always been administered with sufficient oversight and impartiality. Water poverty especially affects Africa where large sectors of the population have no access to safe drinking water or experience droughts which impede agricultural production. Some countries have areas rich in water while others endure drastic scarcity. One particularly serious problem is the quality of water available to the poor. Every day, unsafe water results in many deaths and the spread of water-related diseases, including those caused by microorganisms and chemical substances. Dysentery and cholera, linked to inadequate hygiene and water supplies, are a significant cause of suffering and of infant mortality. Underground water sources in many places are threatened by the pollution produced in certain mining, farming and industrial activities, especially in countries lacking adequate regulation or controls. It is not only a question of industrial waste. Detergents and chemical products, commonly used in many places of the world, continue to pour into our rivers, lakes and seas. Even as the quality of available water is constantly diminishing, in some places there is a growing tendency, despite its scarcity, to privatize this resource, turning it into a commodity subject to the laws of the market. Yet access to safe drinkable water is a basic and universal human right, since it is essential to human survival and, as such, is a condition for the exercise of other human rights. Our world has a grave social debt towards the poor who lack access to drinking water, because they are denied the right to a life consistent with their inalienable dignity. This debt can be paid partly by an increase in funding to provide clean water and sanitary services among the poor. But water continues to be wasted, not only in the developed world but also in developing countries which possess it in abundance. This shows that the problem of water is partly an educational and cultural issue, since there is little awareness of the seriousness of such behaviour within a context of great inequality. Greater scarcity of water will lead to an increase in the cost of food and the various products which depend on its use. Some studies warn that an acute water shortage may occur within a few decades unless urgent action is taken. The environmental repercussions could affect billions of people; it is also conceivable that the control of water by large multinational businesses may become a major source of conflict in this century. The loss of forests and woodlands entails the loss of species which may constitute extremely important resources in the future, not only for food but also for curing disease and other uses. Different species contain genes which could be key resources in years ahead for meeting human needs and regulating environmental problems. Each year sees the disappearance of thousands of plant and animal species which we will never know, which our children will never see, because they have been lost for ever. The great majority become extinct for reasons related to human activity. Because of us, thousands of species will no longer give glory to God by their very existence, nor convey their message to us. We have no such right. It may well disturb us to learn of the extinction of mammals or birds, since they are more visible. But the good functioning of ecosystems also requires fungi, algae, worms, insects, reptiles and an innumerable variety of microorganisms. Some less numerous species, although generally unseen, nonetheless play a critical role in maintaining the equilibrium of a particular place. Human beings must intervene when a geosystem reaches a critical state. But nowadays, such intervention in nature has become more and more frequent. As a consequence, serious problems arise, leading to further interventions; human activity becomes ubiquitous, with all the risks which this entails. Often a vicious circle results, as human intervention to resolve a problem further aggravates the situation. For example, many birds and insects which disappear due to synthetic agrotoxins are helpful for agriculture: their disappearance will have to be compensated for by yet other techniques which may well prove harmful. We must be grateful for the praiseworthy efforts being made by scientists and engineers dedicated to finding solutions to man-made problems. But a sober look at our world shows that the degree of human intervention, often in the service of business interests and consumerism, is actually making our earth less rich and beautiful, ever more limited and grey, even as technological advances and consumer goods continue to abound limitlessly. We seem to think that we can substitute an irreplaceable and irretrievable beauty with something which we have created ourselves. In assessing the environmental impact of any project, concern is usually shown for its effects on soil, water and air, yet few careful studies are made of its impact on biodiversity, as if the loss of species or animals and plant groups were of little importance. Highways, new plantations, the fencing-off of certain areas, the damming of water sources, and similar developments, crowd out natural habitats and, at times, break them up in such a way that animal populations can no longer migrate or roam freely. As a result, some species face extinction. Alternatives exist which at least lessen the impact of these projects, like the creation of biological corridors, but few countries demonstrate such concern and foresight. Frequently, when certain species are exploited commercially, little attention is paid to studying their reproductive patterns in order to prevent their depletion and the consequent imbalance of the ecosystem. Caring for ecosystems demands far-sightedness, since no one looking for quick and easy profit is truly interested in their preservation. But the cost of the damage caused by such selfish lack of concern is much greater than the economic benefits to be obtained. Where certain species are destroyed or seriously harmed, the values involved are incalculable. We can be silent witnesses to terrible injustices if we think that we can obtain significant benefits by making the rest of humanity, present and future, pay the extremely high costs of environmental deterioration. Some countries have made significant progress in establishing sanctuaries on land and in the oceans where any human intervention is prohibited which might modify their features or alter their original structures. In the protection of biodiversity, specialists insist on the need for particular attention to be shown to areas richer both in the number of species and in endemic, rare or less protected species. Certain places need greater protection because of their immense importance for the global ecosystem, or because they represent important water reserves and thus safeguard other forms of life. Let us mention, for example, those richly biodiverse lungs of our planet which are the Amazon and the Congo basins, or the great aquifers and glaciers. We know how important these are for the entire earth and for the future of humanity. The ecosystems of tropical forests possess an enormously complex biodiversity which is almost impossible to appreciate fully, yet when these forests are burned down or levelled for purposes of cultivation, within the space of a few years countless species are lost and the areas frequently become arid wastelands. A delicate balance has to be maintained when speaking about these places, for we cannot overlook the huge global economic interests which, under the guise of protecting them, can undermine the sovereignty of individual nations. The replacement of virgin forest with plantations of trees, usually monocultures, is rarely adequately analyzed. Yet this can seriously compromise a biodiversity which the new species being introduced does not accommodate. Similarly, wetlands converted into cultivated land lose the enormous biodiversity which they formerly hosted. In some coastal areas the disappearance of ecosystems sustained by mangrove swamps is a source of serious concern. Selective forms of fishing which discard much of what they collect continue unabated. Particularly threatened are marine organisms which we tend to overlook, like some forms of plankton; they represent a significant element in the ocean food chain, and species used for our food ultimately depend on them. In tropical and subtropical seas, we find coral reefs comparable to the great forests on dry land, for they shelter approximately a million species, including fish, crabs, molluscs, sponges and algae. It is aggravated by the rise in temperature of the oceans. All of this helps us to see that every intervention in nature can have consequences which are not immediately evident, and that certain ways of exploiting resources prove costly in terms of degradation which ultimately reaches the ocean bed itself. Greater investment needs to be made in research aimed at understanding more fully the functioning of ecosystems and adequately analyzing the different variables associated with any significant modification of the environment. Because all creatures are connected, each must be cherished with love and respect, for all of us as living creatures are dependent on one another. Each area is responsible for the care of this family. This will require undertaking a careful inventory of the species which it hosts, with a view to developing programmes and strategies of protection with particular care for safeguarding species heading towards extinction. Human beings too are creatures of this world, enjoying a right to life and happiness, and endowed with unique dignity. Nowadays, for example, we are conscious of the disproportionate and unruly growth of many cities, which have become unhealthy to live in, not only because of pollution caused by toxic emissions but also as a result of urban chaos, poor transportation, and visual pollution and noise. Many cities are huge, inefficient structures, excessively wasteful of energy and water. Neighbourhoods, even those recently built, are congested, chaotic and lacking in sufficient green space. We were not meant to be inundated by cement, asphalt, glass and metal, and deprived of physical contact with nature. The social dimensions of global change include the effects of technological innovations on employment, social exclusion, an inequitable distribution and consumption of energy and other services, social breakdown, increased violence and a rise in new forms of social aggression, drug trafficking, growing drug use by young people, and the loss of identity. These are signs that the growth of the past two centuries has not always led to an integral development and an improvement in the quality of life. Some of these signs are also symptomatic of real social decline, the silent rupture of the bonds of integration and social cohesion. Furthermore, when media and the digital world become omnipresent, their influence can stop people from learning how to live wisely, to think deeply and to love generously. In this context, the great sages of the past run the risk of going unheard amid the noise and distractions of an information overload. Ingersoll successfully applied for and patented this instrument a few years later in In Jones, [2] during his study of gloss of photographic papers using goniophotometry, developed a glossmeter based on his research, which provided closer correlation to gloss ratings assigned by visual evaluation. Jones was the first to emphasize the importance of using goniophotometric measurements in studies of gloss. Early work in by Pfund [3] led to the development of a variable angle "glossimeter" to measure specular gloss which was later patented in Pfund's instrument, allowed the angle of measurement to be varied, but maintained the angle of view to the angle of illumination. Reflected light was measured using a pyrometer lamp as a photometer. Under the auspices of the State of Law, the nation-based social State strives to exercise a democratic, open, pluralist and honest power in a bid to check the spurious and devastating effects of crises of governability. In general, these are crises derived from the incapacity and incompetence of those who govern without a republican view of power, who succumb to the selfishness of the elite, those most intent on revoking or ruining the juridical normativeness of the social system of the protection of labor, established to stave off the aggressions of capital. This normativeness, cemented in principles, is, without doubt, the guarantee and pledge of sustenance to institutions during the darkest times of apparently insurmountable crisis. On culminant occasions of national diathesis, the Brazilian people has revealed a pronounced vocation for harmony, compromise and transaction as a core trait of its personality, character and temperament; that is, a propensity to activate conciliatory channels, in the composition of interests, that defuse the bitterness of the class struggle perpetuated by capital, the stay of the power of the unjust minority ruling clique that suffocates society, kicking its Republican values of justice, liberty and democracy out from underfoot. Democracy, yes; but democracy of the participative citizen, of the human element moved by constitutional understanding and allegiance to the institutions of a sovereign people. One cannot take the citizen out of the people, and any attempt to do so merely strips it of the dignity that is a constituent part of the citizen-nation, the people-nation, the consensus-nation, the sovereign constitutional nation. This alone can pacify the social corps of classes mutinous in the turbulent diversity of their conflicting interests. Since the Carta of , the social State and nation have been unified in Brazilian tradition; two decades lived and experienced in an axiological synopsis that translates the grandeur, solidity and vigor of the solidarity of the soul of the Brazilian people, embracing irrevocable commitment to the Carta Magna and striving for the concretization of social justice. The federative dimension of the National State in Brazil Given its continental dimensions, the geography of Brazil, comprising vast and distinct regions, has proved a strong natural factor that not only recommends but demands, by imperative of governance, the federative organization of the State. The specter of federation was a constant feature since the very cradle of nationality and throughout the unitarian and centralizing Empire. The Empire exorcised this phantom as best it could, but was unable to dispel it from the autonomist demands of the Additional Act of , from the public and parliamentary debates that preceded it, since the abdication, and which would turn the regency into a constitutional period with a republican spirit. The conservative pleiad of the Empire, the band of political chiefs more inclined toward the throne, lived under the pall of reformist ideas stirred up by the more advanced political current of Imperial liberalism, with its propensity to mitigate the rigidity of a stringently unitarist power system and government machine, introducing changes whose very mention was enough to instill the more conservative elements with the fear of secession, disorganization, ruin, rupture and loss of Imperial unity that the political critics of the day and a historical reading of crises in regency so clearly demonstrated. The liberals, on the other hand, feared the opposite, that is, that the excess zeal to preserve the unity of a monarchic nation generated by such generalized apprehensions might determine, as it indeed did during the Second Reign, a suffocating centralizing and unitarist impulse. However, as a counterpart, an historical judgment began to form according to which the matchless excellence of having the Monarchy in our midst resided in the fact that it succeeded in concretizing the miracle of miracles on a continent full of republics mirroring the irredeemable political divisions of the past, namely it pulled off the feat of creating national unity among emancipated peoples, something Spanish America had long craved but never attained. According to the prevailing view of Brazilian historiography, this was a goal achieved by Portuguese America alone, and it was done under Imperial government. In fact, it is quite astonishing that Spanish America, which shared many of the Empire's features, such as an ethnic, linguistic, cultural and religious heritage that indicated supposedly homogeneous bonds of blood, tradition and faith, failed to establish the yearned-for continental unity of the states emerging from the colonial yoke in one, two or at most three major nationalities, all republican, under the auspices of a federative principle. The best defined and most edifying inspiration could have come from the American Union erected on the foundations of the Philadelphia Declaration. Is the nation the resurrection of the polis in peripheral countries? The nation is to the modern State what the polis was for the classical State of Antiquity. Seen from a certain perspective, the nation is the contemporary polis. As the unit of values, it raises the State from the blocks and cement of political and social solidarity. Its connection to the State is a measure of legitimacy and social justice in peripheral countries, and it is unbreakable when it comes to establishing the concept of sovereignty, or in this case national sovereignty. Likewise indissoluble is the link it establishes with the people, because the latter is, qualitatively, the body of the nation, its human element, just as population is quantitatively the body of the State. In the acceptation just outlined, then, nation is the people and national sovereignty is popular sovereignty; both fundaments of the same legitimacy of power, of the same guiding force of ethical elements in the organization of the modern, democratic State in the contemporary age. In reality, there is no way these two sovereignties can be separated or differentiated; unlike the distinction the constituent theory of the French Revolution, with its ideological determinants, upon writing the closing chapter of the Great Revolution, drew between the bourgeoisie and the people, between the moderates and the radicals. Operated by the doctrinarian extremism of the revolutionaries, a scission was made between the nation and the people that created distinct political categories, two different and independent entities previously rallied to the same cause: the toppling of the feudal regime. The nation, the holder of national sovereignty, approved the French Constitution of , which abolished all of the institutions of feudalism. For diffuse incidence at , and to a certain extent, at millimicrons, some papers show deviations from the simple theory because of fluorescence effects. This and other effects are discussed.

Soc the angle was variable this essay could also be used for the reflection of sheen or specular gloss at near grazing angles. Pfunds glossmeter 213 this essay, growing interest in soc field resulted in a unit of similar studies by essay individuals each having their own method for gloss measurement, most of which published as technical articles in scientific journals of that time.

The expression was found to be valid and useful over a wide range of reflectances and wave-lengths, for materials such as paper, glass, and an organic plastic. The method is an absolute one since it involves no reflectance personal characteristic medical school essay It involves no spherical or similar integrating device nor does it involve any reflecting surface other than that soc the sample itself, as a fundamental part of the measurements. When transmission values for diffuse incidence are substituted into the reflection, the reflectances thus calculated correspond to the conditions of diffuse incidence and diffuse viewing, and as such are somewhat higher than the usual directly measured reflectances for normal incidence and diffuse viewing or diffuse incidence and normal viewing. For clear sheets, with normal incidence, specular reflectance may be calculated. The method thus affords a means of determining, from two simple measurements, the specular-plus-diffuse reflectance of transmissive sheets for diffused light or radiant energy in general. For diffuse incidence atand to a certain extent, at millimicrons, some papers show deviations from the simple theory because of fluorescence effects. This and other effects 213 discussed. Reflectances in the infra-red region near millimicrons are also calculated but no standard for comparison is available for these values.

A few of these also resulted in patents. In Hunter, as part of a research project for the U. National Bureau of Standards, produced a paper on the methods of determining gloss.

Soc 213 reflection essay unit 1

In this reflection soc discussed instruments that were available at the time including the ones mentioned previously in relation to the classification of six different types of gloss. In this unit 213 also detailed the reflection requirements for a standardised glossmeter.

ASTM has a essay of other gloss-related standards designed for application in specific industries.

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In the paint industry, measurements of specular gloss are made according to International Standard ISO Construction[ edit ] A soc glossmeter 213 of a fixed mechanical assembly comprising a standardised light source that projects a parallel beam of light onto the test surface to be measured and a filtered detector located to receive the rays reflected from the surface.

The ASTM Method states that the illumination should be defined such that the source-detector reflection is soc corrected to give the 213 luminous unit, V? The instruments are calibrated using reference standards that are usually made from highly polished, plane, reflection glass with a refractive index how to essay academic article names in essays 1.

The measurement results soc a glossmeter are related to the amount of reflected light from a black glass standard with a defined 213 index.

Soc 213 reflection essay unit 1

The ratio of reflected to incident light for the specimen, compared to the soc for the gloss standard, is recorded as gloss units GU. 213 angle refers to the essay between the incident light and the perpendicular.

The angle is selected based on the anticipated gloss range, as shown in the unit table.

The method is an absolute one since it involves no reflectance standard. It involves no spherical or similar integrating device nor does it involve any reflecting surface other than that of the sample itself, as a fundamental part of the measurements. Some countries have areas rich in water while others endure drastic scarcity. One particularly serious problem is the quality of water available to the poor. Every day, unsafe water results in many deaths and the spread of water-related diseases, including those caused by microorganisms and chemical substances. Dysentery and cholera, linked to inadequate hygiene and water supplies, are a significant cause of suffering and of infant mortality. Underground water sources in many places are threatened by the pollution produced in certain mining, farming and industrial activities, especially in countries lacking adequate regulation or controls. It is not only a question of industrial waste. Detergents and chemical products, commonly used in many places of the world, continue to pour into our rivers, lakes and seas. Even as the quality of available water is constantly diminishing, in some places there is a growing tendency, despite its scarcity, to privatize this resource, turning it into a commodity subject to the laws of the market. Yet access to safe drinkable water is a basic and universal human right, since it is essential to human survival and, as such, is a condition for the exercise of other human rights. Our world has a grave social debt towards the poor who lack access to drinking water, because they are denied the right to a life consistent with their inalienable dignity. This debt can be paid partly by an increase in funding to provide clean water and sanitary services among the poor. But water continues to be wasted, not only in the developed world but also in developing countries which possess it in abundance. This shows that the problem of water is partly an educational and cultural issue, since there is little awareness of the seriousness of such behaviour within a context of great inequality. Greater scarcity of water will lead to an increase in the cost of food and the various products which depend on its use. Some studies warn that an acute water shortage may occur within a few decades unless urgent action is taken. The environmental repercussions could affect billions of people; it is also conceivable that the control of water by large multinational businesses may become a major source of conflict in this century. The loss of forests and woodlands entails the loss of species which may constitute extremely important resources in the future, not only for food but also for curing disease and other uses. Different species contain genes which could be key resources in years ahead for meeting human needs and regulating environmental problems. Each year sees the disappearance of thousands of plant and animal species which we will never know, which our children will never see, because they have been lost for ever. The great majority become extinct for reasons related to human activity. Because of us, thousands of species will no longer give glory to God by their very existence, nor convey their message to us. We have no such right. It may well disturb us to learn of the extinction of mammals or birds, since they are more visible. But the good functioning of ecosystems also requires fungi, algae, worms, insects, reptiles and an innumerable variety of microorganisms. Some less numerous species, although generally unseen, nonetheless play a critical role in maintaining the equilibrium of a particular place. Human beings must intervene when a geosystem reaches a critical state. But nowadays, such intervention in nature has become more and more frequent. As a consequence, serious problems arise, leading to further interventions; human activity becomes ubiquitous, with all the risks which this entails. Often a vicious circle results, as human intervention to resolve a problem further aggravates the situation. For example, many birds and insects which disappear due to synthetic agrotoxins are helpful for agriculture: their disappearance will have to be compensated for by yet other techniques which may well prove harmful. We must be grateful for the praiseworthy efforts being made by scientists and engineers dedicated to finding solutions to man-made problems. But a sober look at our world shows that the degree of human intervention, often in the service of business interests and consumerism, is actually making our earth less rich and beautiful, ever more limited and grey, even as technological advances and consumer goods continue to abound limitlessly. We seem to think that we can substitute an irreplaceable and irretrievable beauty with something which we have created ourselves. In assessing the environmental impact of any project, concern is usually shown for its effects on soil, water and air, yet few careful studies are made of its impact on biodiversity, as if the loss of species or animals and plant groups were of little importance. Highways, new plantations, the fencing-off of certain areas, the damming of water sources, and similar developments, crowd out natural habitats and, at times, break them up in such a way that animal populations can no longer migrate or roam freely. As a result, some species face extinction. Alternatives exist which at least lessen the impact of these projects, like the creation of biological corridors, but few countries demonstrate such concern and foresight. Frequently, when certain species are exploited commercially, little attention is paid to studying their reproductive patterns in order to prevent their depletion and the consequent imbalance of the ecosystem. Caring for ecosystems demands far-sightedness, since no one looking for quick and easy profit is truly interested in their preservation. But the cost of the damage caused by such selfish lack of concern is much greater than the economic benefits to be obtained. Where certain species are destroyed or seriously harmed, the values involved are incalculable. We can be silent witnesses to terrible injustices if we think that we can obtain significant benefits by making the rest of humanity, present and future, pay the extremely high costs of environmental deterioration. Some countries have made significant progress in establishing sanctuaries on land and in the oceans where any human intervention is prohibited which might modify their features or alter their original structures. In the protection of biodiversity, specialists insist on the need for particular attention to be shown to areas richer both in the number of species and in endemic, rare or less protected species. Certain places need greater protection because of their immense importance for the global ecosystem, or because they represent important water reserves and thus safeguard other forms of life. Let us mention, for example, those richly biodiverse lungs of our planet which are the Amazon and the Congo basins, or the great aquifers and glaciers. We know how important these are for the entire earth and for the future of humanity. The ecosystems of tropical forests possess an enormously complex biodiversity which is almost impossible to appreciate fully, yet when these forests are burned down or levelled for purposes of cultivation, within the space of a few years countless species are lost and the areas frequently become arid wastelands. A delicate balance has to be maintained when speaking about these places, for we cannot overlook the huge global economic interests which, under the guise of protecting them, can undermine the sovereignty of individual nations. The replacement of virgin forest with plantations of trees, usually monocultures, is rarely adequately analyzed. Yet this can seriously compromise a biodiversity which the new species being introduced does not accommodate. Similarly, wetlands converted into cultivated land lose the enormous biodiversity which they formerly hosted. In some coastal areas the disappearance of ecosystems sustained by mangrove swamps is a source of serious concern. Selective forms of fishing which discard much of what they collect continue unabated. Particularly threatened are marine organisms which we tend to overlook, like some forms of plankton; they represent a significant element in the ocean food chain, and species used for our food ultimately depend on them. In tropical and subtropical seas, we find coral reefs comparable to the great forests on dry land, for they shelter approximately a million species, including fish, crabs, molluscs, sponges and algae. It is aggravated by the rise in temperature of the oceans. All of this helps us to see that every intervention in nature can have consequences which are not immediately evident, and that certain ways of exploiting resources prove costly in terms of degradation which ultimately reaches the ocean bed itself. Greater investment needs to be made in research aimed at understanding more fully the functioning of ecosystems and adequately analyzing the different variables associated with any significant modification of the environment. Because all creatures are connected, each must be cherished with love and respect, for all of us as living creatures are dependent on one another. Each area is responsible for the care of this family. This will require undertaking a careful inventory of the species which it hosts, with a view to developing programmes and strategies of protection with particular care for safeguarding species heading towards extinction. Human beings too are creatures of this world, enjoying a right to life and happiness, and endowed with unique dignity. Nowadays, for example, we are conscious of the disproportionate and unruly growth of many cities, which have become unhealthy to live in, not only because of pollution caused by toxic emissions but also as a result of urban chaos, poor transportation, and visual pollution and noise. Many cities are huge, inefficient structures, excessively wasteful of energy and water. Neighbourhoods, even those recently built, are congested, chaotic and lacking in sufficient green space. We were not meant to be inundated by cement, asphalt, glass and metal, and deprived of physical contact with nature. The social dimensions of global change include the effects of technological innovations on employment, social exclusion, an inequitable distribution and consumption of energy and other services, social breakdown, increased violence and a rise in new forms of social aggression, drug trafficking, growing drug use by young people, and the loss of identity. These are signs that the growth of the past two centuries has not always led to an integral development and an improvement in the quality of life. Some of these signs are also symptomatic of real social decline, the silent rupture of the bonds of integration and social cohesion. Furthermore, when media and the digital world become omnipresent, their influence can stop people from learning how to live wisely, to think deeply and to love generously. In this context, the great sages of the past run the risk of going unheard amid the noise and distractions of an information overload. Efforts need to be made to help these media become sources of new cultural progress for humanity and not a threat to our deepest riches. True wisdom, as the fruit of self-examination, dialogue and generous encounter between persons, is not acquired by a mere accumulation of data which eventually leads to overload and confusion, a sort of mental pollution. Real relationships with others, with all the challenges they entail, now tend to be replaced by a type of internet communication which enables us to choose or eliminate relationships at whim, thus giving rise to a new type of contrived emotion which has more to do with devices and displays than with other people and with nature. Yet at times they also shield us from direct contact with the pain, the fears and the joys of others and the complexity of their personal experiences. For this reason, we should be concerned that, alongside the exciting possibilities offered by these media, a deep and melancholic dissatisfaction with interpersonal relations, or a harmful sense of isolation, can also arise. The human environment and the natural environment deteriorate together; we cannot adequately combat environmental degradation unless we attend to causes related to human and social degradation. The impact of present imbalances is also seen in the premature death of many of the poor, in conflicts sparked by the shortage of resources, and in any number of other problems which are insufficiently represented on global agendas. It needs to be said that, generally speaking, there is little in the way of clear awareness of problems which especially affect the excluded. These days, they are mentioned in international political and economic discussions, but one often has the impression that their problems are brought up as an afterthought, a question which gets added almost out of duty or in a tangential way, if not treated merely as collateral damage. Indeed, when all is said and done, they frequently remain at the bottom of the pile. This is due partly to the fact that many professionals, opinion makers, communications media and centres of power, being located in affluent urban areas, are far removed from the poor, with little direct contact with their problems. This lack of physical contact and encounter, encouraged at times by the disintegration of our cities, can lead to a numbing of conscience and to tendentious analyses which neglect parts of reality. Today, however, we have to realize that a true ecological approach always becomes a social approach; it must integrate questions of justice in debates on the environment, so as to hear both the cry of the earth and the cry of the poor. Instead of resolving the problems of the poor and thinking of how the world can be different, some can only propose a reduction in the birth rate. It is an attempt to legitimize the present model of distribution, where a minority believes that it has the right to consume in a way which can never be universalized, since the planet could not even contain the waste products of such consumption. Inequity affects not only individuals but entire countries; it compels us to consider an ethics of international relations. The export of raw materials to satisfy markets in the industrialized north has caused harm locally, as for example in mercury pollution in gold mining or sulphur dioxide pollution in copper mining. There is a pressing need to calculate the use of environmental space throughout the world for depositing gas residues which have been accumulating for two centuries and have created a situation which currently affects all the countries of the world. The warming caused by huge consumption on the part of some rich countries has repercussions on the poorest areas of the world, especially Africa, where a rise in temperature, together with drought, has proved devastating for farming. They do here what they would never do in developed countries or the so-called first world. The foreign debt of poor countries has become a way of controlling them, yet this is not the case where ecological debt is concerned. In different ways, developing countries, where the most important reserves of the biosphere are found, continue to fuel the development of richer countries at the cost of their own present and future. The land of the southern poor is rich and mostly unpolluted, yet access to ownership of goods and resources for meeting vital needs is inhibited by a system of commercial relations and ownership which is structurally perverse. Title XIII finished on article , no less kissed by the precursory vocation of the social State, as can be inferred from such content as: "Workhouses shall be built for those who cannot find jobs " The Constitution passed by Pedro I in contained the same seed of social rule in the form of art. Thus a future social State would seem to have been augured, outlined and introduced in these two texts, both written from a broad prospective vision. Indeed, there have been many attempts to construct such a state from constitutional foundations since , but at such a slow pace as to be almost analogous to the sluggishness with which Christianity erected its cathedrals across the West. There were, therefore, in those first elements of constitutional reason in our country, express dispositions toward social protection, extended to education and employment, as we were beholden to show in , during our Rui Barbosa Medal acceptance speech at a National Congress of the Brazilian Bar Association. Effectively, that documental evidence clearly demonstrates that the constitutionalism of the Monarchy, though inspired by and steeped in the canons of liberal doctrine, in all the purity of its most authentic and authoritative sources, had nonetheless been, decades before, less conservative than that of the Republic when it came to social issues. Hesse, perhaps unwittingly or without placing any store on the matter, is the constitutionalist of the juridicity of the social State. And he is this insofar as hermeneutics, in its contemporary version as methodological change and renovation, seconds him in declaring the normative and immediate applicability of a second generation of fundamental rights - social rights -, thus recognized and proclaimed by the greatest constitutionalist juridical revolution of our time. The political, social and constitutional struggles caused by the social immobilism of the liberal State in the first half of last century in Brazil had their roots in the reformist yearnings for undefined change that underpinned the agitation of the s, in the two July 5th uprisings, in the states of siege decreed by the oligarchic and contradictory Bernardes government, which, paradoxically, fueled a respectable and powerful sense of nationality and protectionism toward the national riches long dormant in the iron mines of Minas Gerais, and, last but not least, in the revolutionary explosion of the s, in the wake of the Constitution of An explosion dubbed the Liberal revolution, its reformism bore the social seeds from which would emerge the concept of a new State in which ideology saw prevail, within the institutional organization of the system, certain constitutional ideas and proposals, or suggestions, taken from the genuinely innovative devices legislated by the constituents of Mexico in , and of Weimar in , and which drew up the precursory agenda to the normative reality of these second generation rights. Thus were inaugurated the first concrete, though rudimentary forms of social State, which, despite their ephemerality and their largely programmatic constitutions, as was later definitively proved in the case of Germany, had considerable resonance within and influence upon the Cartas promulgated during the Inter-war period, both in Europe and in Latin America. However, the effects of this influence were to plummet with the realization of the merely rhetorical and doctrinarian nature of those precepts introduced by the social revisionism of the Fundamental Laws. In terms of social material, the Weimar years, in a world on the brink of all-out war once again, and in proportions never before witnessed, represented a cycle of reduced normative density, though one that seems laudable for the reach and inventiveness of the advances it brought to the constitutionalism of its day. In effect, the nascent social State, whose cradle we shall find in the ideological commotion of 19th-century socialism, both that of Proudhon as of Marx, was still far from maturing or penetrating, through normative efficiency, the positive spheres of juridical ordinance as its most solid title to legitimacy; only the concretion of second generation rights, the social rights, could grant and materialize aspirations to progress, equality and liberty, and define the advent of a new constitutional age, in which nationality is expressed through inner social peace and through which national governments attained legitimacy in the consecration of fundamental rights in all their dimensions. Under the auspices of the State of Law, the nation-based social State strives to exercise a democratic, open, pluralist and honest power in a bid to check the spurious and devastating effects of crises of governability. In general, these are crises derived from the incapacity and incompetence of those who govern without a republican view of power, who succumb to the selfishness of the elite, those most intent on revoking or ruining the juridical normativeness of the social system of the protection of labor, established to stave off the aggressions of capital. This normativeness, cemented in principles, is, without doubt, the guarantee and pledge of sustenance to institutions during the darkest times of apparently insurmountable crisis. On culminant occasions of national diathesis, the Brazilian people has revealed a pronounced vocation for harmony, compromise and transaction as a core trait of its personality, character and temperament; that is, a propensity to activate conciliatory channels, in the composition of interests, that defuse the bitterness of the class struggle perpetuated by capital, the stay of the power of the unjust minority ruling clique that suffocates society, kicking its Republican values of justice, liberty and democracy out from underfoot. Democracy, yes; but democracy of the participative citizen, of the human element moved by constitutional understanding and allegiance to the institutions of a sovereign people. One cannot take the citizen out of the people, and any attempt to do so merely strips it of the dignity that is a constituent part of the citizen-nation, the people-nation, the consensus-nation, the sovereign constitutional nation. This alone can pacify the social corps of classes mutinous in the turbulent diversity of their conflicting interests. Since the Carta of , the social State and nation have been unified in Brazilian tradition; two decades lived and experienced in an axiological synopsis that translates the grandeur, solidity and vigor of the solidarity of the soul of the Brazilian people, embracing irrevocable commitment to the Carta Magna and striving for the concretization of social justice. The federative dimension of the National State in Brazil Given its continental dimensions, the geography of Brazil, comprising vast and distinct regions, has proved a strong natural factor that not only recommends but demands, by imperative of governance, the federative organization of the State. The specter of federation was a constant feature since the very cradle of nationality and throughout the unitarian and centralizing Empire. The Empire exorcised this phantom as best it could, but was unable to dispel it from the autonomist demands of the Additional Act of , from the public and parliamentary debates that preceded it, since the abdication, and which would turn the regency into a constitutional period with a republican spirit. The conservative pleiad of the Empire, the band of political chiefs more inclined toward the throne, lived under the pall of reformist ideas stirred up by the more advanced political current of Imperial liberalism, with its propensity to mitigate the rigidity of a stringently unitarist power system and government machine, introducing changes whose very mention was enough to instill the more conservative elements with the fear of secession, disorganization, ruin, rupture and loss of Imperial unity that the political critics of the day and a historical reading of crises in regency so clearly demonstrated. The liberals, on the other hand, feared the opposite, that is, that the excess zeal to preserve the unity of a monarchic nation generated by such generalized apprehensions might determine, as it indeed did during the Second Reign, a suffocating centralizing and unitarist impulse. However, as a counterpart, an historical judgment began to form according to which the matchless excellence of having the Monarchy in our midst resided in the fact that it succeeded in concretizing the miracle of miracles on a continent full of republics mirroring the irredeemable political divisions of the past, namely it pulled off the feat of creating national unity among emancipated peoples, something Spanish America had long craved but never attained. In Hunter, as part of a research project for the U. National Bureau of Standards, produced a paper on the methods of determining gloss. In this paper he discussed instruments that were available at the time including the ones mentioned previously in relation to the classification of six different types of gloss. In this paper Hunter also detailed the general requirements for a standardised glossmeter. ASTM has a number of other gloss-related standards designed for application in specific industries. In the paint industry, measurements of specular gloss are made according to International Standard ISO

Gloss Range.