After administration of 1. However, few studies have evaluated the effects of curcumin on acute inflammatory changes of articular cartilage in experimental arthritis 25 , 29 - Despite curcumin being used for centuries in Indian medicine as an anti-inflammatory substance, evaluation of its therapeutic effects in experimental arthritis has been limited No studies have evaluated the effects of curcumin in an experimental arthritis model induced by zymosan or compared the effects of substance with prednisone, which makes this a pioneer study.
Some studies have evaluated the effects of curcumin alone or combination with other medications with anti-inflammatory effects.
Taty Anna et al. They showed that there was significant improvement in inflammatory score, radiographic score and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in animals treated with the higher doses. However, the main criticism is that the study cannot evaluate if the effect is due to curcumin alone or, more likely, the synergism between the two substances.
Ramadan et al. They found that both rhizomes were able to reduce the incidence and severity of arthritis by increasing and decreasing proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, respectively, and activating the antioxidant defense systems. When compared to curcumin extract of ginger and indomethacin, they found that curcumin showed an anti-arthritic effect that was superior that of other substances, particularly when administered from the day of the induction of arthritis.
They concluded that the results proved that the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of curcumin are stronger than those of ginger and indomethacin. Its low cost and lack of adverse effects make the substance potentially effective in treating arthritis Because the extract of Curcuma longa is not water soluble, we chose to dissolve it in corn oil.
Other authors have chosen to dissolve the plant extract in olive oil Therefore, it is possible that the vehicle used has also interfered with the absorption. It is possible that the administration of curcumin parenteral could provide higher availability; however, this type of administration diminishes the advantage of using the substance over other drug options for the treatment of arthritis.
The use of nanoparticles or curcumin involved in phospholipid complexes, or the synthesis of analogous substances, appears to have solved the problems of low bioavailability because they favor the absorption and metabolism delay After 12 hours of the intervention with curcumin and the two doses of prednisone, we could not find a reduction in the number of neutrophils compared with the positive control group, but a significantly higher number was observed when compared with the negative control.
After 48 hours, the intervention of both substances did not reduce the number of neutrophils when compared with the positive control group. In other words, the results of this study shown that curcumin has early anti-inflammatory activity. It's reduces the inflammation in the joint within the first six hours after the induction of arthritis, showing similar therapeutic efficacy even at doses comparable to steroids immunosuppressive doses and exceeding the anti-inflammatory effects observed with GC.
However, after 12 and 24 hours, the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin become similar to those of prednisone at both doses and do not alter the degree of inflammation. These findings may be related to low plasma and tissue levels of curcumin due to the low absorption by the digestive tract, and rapid systemic metabolism and elimination It is possible that the use of drugs by the parenteral route, dissolved in lipid vehicles capable of intravenous administration, can enhance the activity of the substance during that period.
The results of this study suggest that curcumin may be a useful drug for treating the acute phase of arthritis; however, additional studies have to be performed to improve the effectiveness of the substance. Research comparing increasing concentrations of the drug through different routes of administration, and especially improving their bioavailability, are still required to enable the use of curcumin. Conclusion Oral administration of curcumin may be a useful strategy for treating the initial phase of zymosan-induced arthritis.
References 1. National Arthritis Data Workgroup. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part II. Arthritis Rheum. J Ass Physicians India. PMID: Arden N, Nevitt MC. Osteoarthritis: epidemiology. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. Evaluating the health and economic impact of osteoarthritis pain in the workforce: results from the National Health and Wellness Survey. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. Immune complex induced arthritis in rats: role of lipid mediators on cell infiltration.
Med Inflam. The role of reactive oxygen species in homeostasis and degradation of cartilage. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage. Eur Cell Mater. Jurenka JS. Anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin, a major constituent of Curcuma longa: A review of pre-clinical and clinical research. Altern Med Rev. A week randomized, placebo-controlled clinical evaluation of RA, an Ayurvedic drug, on osteoarthritis of the knees. Clin Rheumatol. Curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibits prostaglandin E 2 production in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
Int J Mol Med. Turmeric extracts containing curcuminoids prevent experimental rheumatoid arthritis. J Nat Prod. Experimental model of zymosan-induced arthritis in the rat temporomandibular joint: role of nitric oxide and neutrophils. Similarly, a steroid such as testosterone see below is referred to as a "C steroid".
Biosynthesis of steroid hormones requires a battery of oxidative enzymes located in both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. The rate-limiting step in this process is the transport of free cholesterol from the cytoplasm into mitochondria.
Within mitochondria, cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone by an enzyme in the inner membrane called CYP11A1. Pregnenolone itself is not a hormone, but is the immediate precursor for the synthesis of all of the steroid hormones.
In the majority of cases, this syndrome is due to CYP21A2 deficiency, and is associated with increased adrenal androgen secretion and partial virilization in girls.
Multiple agents have been used in an attempt to reduce scar formation in experimental and clinical situations after laryngeal injury, including systemic and topical steroids, antibiotics, mitomycin C, heparin, vitamin A, and 5-fluorouracil 5-FU. After general anesthesia was administered by intramuscular injections of xylazine 0. Lipoproteins taken up from plasma are most important when steroidogenic cells are chronically stimulated. Oxygen, nitric oxide and articular cartilage.
Curcumin: the Indian solid gold. Corticosterone is a major Glucocorticoid in rats and other species which do not produce Cortisol.
Some investigations have shown that curcumin inhibits inflammatory mediators such as nuclear factor-kappa B NF-kB , cyclin D1, cyclooxygenase COX-2 , interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 16 - Key Words: Corticosteroids, Curcumin, Laryngeal stenosis, Laryngeal scar Introduction Laryngotracheal stenosis is a devastating, challenging, and sometimes life-threatening condition. Eur Cell Mater. Lipoproteins taken up from plasma are most important when steroidogenic cells are chronically stimulated. Both Androgens and Estrogens affect sexual development and function.