In addition, without further research an SPS demonstration or systems-engineering verification program would be a high-risk venture. This is, of course, an absolute requirement of space solar power. Pete Worden of NASA claimed that space-based solar is about five orders of magnitude more expensive than solar power from the Arizona desert, with a major cost being the transportation of materials to orbit.
Worden referred to possible solutions as speculative, and which would not be available for decades at the earliest. Evaluate studies of the general feasibility, design, and requirements. Create conceptual designs of subsystems that make use of advanced SSP technologies to benefit future space or terrestrial applications. Formulate a preliminary plan of action for the U. SERT went about developing a solar power satellite SPS concept for a future gigawatt space power system, to provide electrical power by converting the Sun's energy and beaming it to Earth's surface, and provided a conceptual development path that would utilize current technologies.
SERT proposed an inflatable photovoltaic gossamer structure with concentrator lenses or solar heat engines to convert sunlight into electricity. The program looked both at systems in sun-synchronous orbit and geosynchronous orbit.
Some of SERT's conclusions: The increasing global energy demand is likely to continue for many decades resulting in new power plants of all sizes being built. The environmental impact of those plants and their impact on world energy supplies and geopolitical relationships can be problematic. Renewable energy is a compelling approach, both philosophically and in engineering terms.
Many renewable energy sources are limited in their ability to affordably provide the base load power required for global industrial development and prosperity, because of inherent land and water requirements. Based on their Concept Definition Study, space solar power concepts may be ready to reenter the discussion.
Solar power satellites should no longer be envisioned as requiring unimaginably large initial investments in fixed infrastructure before the emplacement of productive power plants can begin. The temperature on the Moon can range from very cold to very hot. The Sun is more than a hundred times wider than the Earth. The Earth is about four times wider than the Moon. Explain that the Moon revolves around the Earth, and then add it to the drawing.
Now explain that both the Earth and the Moon revolve around the Sun. Draw this on the board as well. Step 2: Invite three students to come to the front of the class. Explain that student 1 is the Moon, student 2 is the Earth and student 3 is the Sun.
Encourage the students to enact the movement of the Moon around the Earth and the spinning of the Earth on its axis while it revolves around the Sun. VLBI generally benefits from the longer baselines afforded by international collaboration, with a notable early example in , when radio telescopes in the United States, USSR and Australia were linked to observe hydroxyl-maser sources. The lower resolution image on the left image was taken with the UK's MERLIN array and shows the shell of maser emission produced by an expanding shell of gas with a diameter about times that of the Solar System.
The shell of gas was ejected from a supergiant star 10 times the mass of our sun at the centre of the emission about years ago. VLBI has traditionally operated by recording the signal at each telescope on magnetic tapes or disks , and shipping those to the correlation center for replay. Due to the small size of the dish, only very strong radio sources could be observed with SVLBI arrays incorporating it.
It was placed into a highly elliptical orbit, ranging from a perigee of 10, km to an apogee of , km, making RadioAstron, the SVLBI program incorporating the satellite and ground arrays, the biggest radio interferometer to date.
The resolution of the system reached 8 microarcseconds. Extreme tests of general relativity[ edit ] Main article: Tests of general relativity For almost one hundred years, Einstein 's general theory of relativity has precisely predicted the outcome of every experiment made to test it. Most of these tests, including the most stringent ones, have been carried out using radio astronomical measurements.
By using pulsars as cosmic gravitational wave detectors, or timing pulsars found orbiting black holes , astronomers will be able to examine the limits of general relativity such as the behaviour of spacetime in regions of extremely curved space.
The goal is to reveal whether Einstein was correct in his description of space, time and gravity, or whether alternatives to general relativity are needed to account for these phenomena. Galaxies, cosmology, dark matter and dark energy[ edit ] Main articles: Galaxy formation and evolution and Dark matter The sensitivity of the SKA in the 21 cm hydrogen line will map a billion galaxies out to the edge of the observable Universe.
Print the mobile activity worksheet for each student. Step 2: The wooden skewers are used for the top bar. Galaxies, cosmology, dark matter and dark energy[ edit ] Main articles: Galaxy formation and evolution and Dark matter The sensitivity of the SKA in the 21 cm hydrogen line will map a billion galaxies out to the edge of the observable Universe. The Earth is about four times wider than the Moon.
Due to the small size of the dish, only very strong radio sources could be observed with SVLBI arrays incorporating it. For example, a beam of 0.
If the position of the antennas is not known to sufficient accuracy or atmospheric effects are significant, fine adjustments to the delays must be made until interference fringes are detected. Brown demonstrated in , during Walter Cronkite 's CBS News program, a microwave-powered model helicopter that received all the power it needed for flight from a microwave beam. They learn that the Earth revolves around the Sun and the Moon around the Earth.
In a report presented to NASA on Space Solar Power, the author mentions another potential use for the technology behind Space Solar Power could be for Solar Electric Propulsion Systems that could be used for interplanetary human exploration missions. The thinned-array curse preventing efficient transmission of power from space to the Earth's surface. Explain to the students that they can add to this whenever they like, either in words or drawings. Formulate a preliminary plan of action for the U. The Sun is more than a hundred times wider than the Earth. The use of solar dynamic could reduce mass per watt.
Most analyses of SBSP have focused on photovoltaic conversion using solar cells that directly convert sunlight into electricity. It needs no protection from terrestrial wind or weather, but will have to cope with space hazards such as micrometeors and solar flares. Now explain that both the Earth and the Moon revolve around the Sun. Some of the scientific results derived from VLBI include: High resolution radio imaging of cosmic radio sources. Improvement of atmospheric models.
Encourage the students to enact the movement of the Moon around the Earth and the spinning of the Earth on its axis while it revolves around the Sun.
The thinned-array curse preventing efficient transmission of power from space to the Earth's surface. Power beaming from geostationary orbit by microwaves carries the difficulty that the required 'optical aperture' sizes are very large. Evaluate studies of the general feasibility, design, and requirements. The resolution of the system reached 8 microarcseconds. Cut out all the cards before the activity.
At the location of the correlator the data are played back. As of May , all sixty-four When one or both of these arrays are combined with space-based VLBI antennas such as HALCA or Spektr-R , the resolution obtained is higher than any other astronomical instrument, capable of imaging the sky with a level of detail measured in microarcseconds.
Susumu Sasaki. He proposed using diamond solar cells operating at degrees[ clarification needed ] to convert ultraviolet laser light. Evaluate studies of the general feasibility, design, and requirements. Measurement of gravitational forces of the Sun and Moon on the Earth and the deep structure of the Earth. NASA diagram More recently, microwave power transmission has been demonstrated, in conjunction with solar energy capture, between a mountain top in Maui and the island of Hawaii 92 miles away , by a team under John C.