The Jews continued to redefine DaTH with the Mishnah, the Talmud, the Kabbalah, and to this day with books being published, web sites being built, deeper insights explored and lived out.
The greatest treasure comes from uniting with Yahweh. A treasure is a reward after following a treasure hunt. A gift is never really valued as a treasure. DaTH is being conscious of the will of Yahweh, which we can concentrate upon, which we can be mindful of, which can direct our view of what Yahweh wants in each given situation. DaTH is beyond memorizing a collection of ancient rules. DaTH is a living part of each of us. I would dare say that people who have never heard one word of religion still know that it would be wrong to go on a murdering spree or steal from the neighbors when they are not at home.
The DaTH extends far beyond the few ancient case-by-case examples of what would not be acceptable behavior. The wooden boats measured an average of 15 meters in length which said to carry the first settlers of Butuan. To date, 9 Balangays have already been discovered in Ambangan, Libertad sites. Aside from the remains of the Balangay boats also found the remains of the early settlers.
The Balangay is a cultural heritage that establishes the maritime activities of Butuan long before the Chinese came to the shores of the Philippines. During the early period of European colonization, the Biblical lands of Tarshish and Ophir, or Tarsis and Ofir, as they were called, held the imagination of European explorers. Not only was it believed that the "lost tribes" of Israel were to be found in these lands, but also untold wealth. To these kingdoms King Solomon and King Hiram of Tyre sent ships for trade that "brought from Ophir great plenty of almug trees, and precious stones," I Kings Concerning Tarshish it is written: "Fro the king's ships went to Tarshish with the servants of Hiram: every three years once came the shop sof Tarshish bringing gold and silver, ivory, and apes, and peacock.
In particular, he argues strenously that it is beloved Britain and not Spain that deserved the title as the modern Tarshish and Ophir. Curiously, in Careri's journal of his visit to the Philippines, he mentions that he would not go into the argument raging in Europe at that time over whether the Philippines was originally populated by the descendants of Biblical Tarshish.
In modern times, scholars have attempted to relate Tarshish and Ophir with a number of areas, none of which include the Philippines. However, things were different in Europe prior to the discovery of the Philippines. There, they believed that Tarsis and Ofir were some lands far to the east of biblical Israel.
Their reasoning was actually quite logical. The return journey took about three years, so obviously the location must be somewhere far to the East. In modern times, some scholars have tried to suggest that Solomon's navy circumnavigated Africa to reach the Mediterranean, but the seafaring Europeans of those times would not consider such nonsense.
Tarsis and Ofir were unknown lands beyond the Golden Chersonese of Ptolemy. Their discovery would undoubtedly bring untold wealth and great fame in the minds of the people of those times. But what, one may ask, has this to do with the Philippines? The truth is that the search for Tarsis and Ofir was directly related to the "discovery" of these islands by Magellan! Magellan and the Search for Ophir Magellan's contemporary, Duarte Barbosa, wrote that the people of Malacca in modern Malaysia had described to him an island group known as the Lequios whose people were as "rich and more eminent than the Chins Chinese ," and that traded "much gold, and sliver in bars, silk, rich cloth, and much very good wheat, beautiful porcelains and many other merchandises.
About a decade after Magellan's voyage, Ferdinand Pinto had wrote in his journal of the experience of his crew and himself after being shipwrecked on the Lequios! Pinto was traveling through the Malay Archipelago at the time and he describes the Lequios islands see Luzon Empire as belonging to large group of islands many of which were rich in gold and silver. He mentions that at that time the Portugese were familiar with Japan and China, and also with the island of "Mindanaus" or Mindanao, so the Lequois islands must have been somewhere between these two areas.
Furthermore, Pinto even goes as far as to give the exact latitude of the main Lequios island. He states that is was situated at 9N20 latitude and that the island was on a merdian similar to that of Japan.
Latitude sailing required fixing one's latitude precisely by means of an astrolabe. Longitude could only be approximated roughly by using a patent log to track the distance the ship has travelled in any particular direction. When Magellan began to suspect he was nearing the region of the Moluccas he deliberately steered on a north course and then turned westward at a latitude of 13 degrees North according to both Pigafetta and Albo.
Pigafetta states that the reason was to get near the port of "Gaticara" which was the Cattigara mentioned by Ptolemy. Nowell, offers another possible reason for Magellan steering so far to the north of the Moluccas.
He notes that Magellan himself had rewrote part of Barbosa's book referring to the Lequios, and in his version Magellan substituted "Tarsis" and "Ofir" for the world "Lequios. Probably many of you already know of the theory that Black Henry, the slave Magellan purchased at Malacca, may have belonged to the Filipino community of Malacca as he was able to speak with the natives at Limasawa.
Whatever the case, we know from his own pen that Magellan thought the Lequios islands might be the same as the Biblical Tarsis and Ofir, and it may be that his idea of the position of the Lequios was partly shaped by Barbosa's book, and partly by information he may have received from Filipinos in Malacca. Was the fact that Black Henry was able to converse with the people living at the latitude given by Pinto but not with the people of Samar or Leyte a coincidence, or something planned in advance from information gleaned in Malacca?
Even after their discovery, many still regarded the Philippines, rich in gold and silver, to be the same as ancient Tarsis and Ofir. Father Colin, referred to them as such in the early 's and even at the turn of the century, the Philippine historian Pedro Paterno, still claimed that the Philippines were really Tarshish and Ophir! Whatever one thinks of these claims though, the search for the Biblical El Dorado appears to have played an important role in the European discovery of the Philippines.
Ferdinand Magellan While in the service of Spain, the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan led the first European voyage of discovery to circumnavigate the globe. Ferdinand Magellan was born in Oporto of noble parentage. Having served as a page to the Queen, Magellan entered the Portuguese service in the East in He went to East Africa and later was at the battle of Diu, in which the Portuguese destroyed Egyptian naval hegemony in the Arabian Sea.
He went twice to Malacca, the Malayan spice port, participating in its conquest by the Portuguese. He may also have gone on an exploratory mission to the Molucca Islands Spice Islands , the original source of some of the most valuable spices.
In Magellan was wounded in one of the many frustrating battles against the Moors in North Africa. But all of his services brought him little favor from the Crown, and in , accompanied by his friend the cosmographer Ruy Faleiro, he went to Seville, where he offered his services to the Spanish court. The famous Treaty of Tordesillas had divided the overseas world of the "discoveries" between the two powers.
This eastern area had not yet been explored by the Spaniards, and they assumed that some of the Spice Islands might lie within their half of the globe. They were wrong, but Magellan's scheme was to test that assumption.
In addition it must be recalled that Columbus had made a terrible mistake, brought home by his "discovery" of America. Accepting the academic errors of learned geographers, ancient and modern, he had grossly underestimated the distance between Europe and the East sailing westward from the former.
Balboa's march across the Panamanian Isthmus had subsequently revealed the existence of a "South Sea" the Pacific on the other side of Columbus's "mainlands in the Ocean Sea. There an attempted mutiny was squelched, with only the top leaders being punished. Thereafter, however, the Santiago was wrecked, and its crew had to be taken aboard the other vessels. It proceeded cautiously, taking over a month to pass through the strait. During this time the master of the San Antonio deserted and sailed back to Spain, and so only three of the original five ships entered the Pacific on November There followed a long, monotonous voyage northward through the Pacific, and it was only on March 6, , that the fleet finally anchored at Guam.
Commanding the Victoria, he picked up a small cargo of spices in the Moluccas, crossed the Indian Ocean, and traveled around the Cape of Good Hope from the east. With a greatly reduced crew he finally reached Seville on Sept. In the meantime the Trinidad, considered unfit to make the long voyage home, had tried to beat its way against contrary winds back across the Pacific to Panama.
The voyage revealed the vast extent of the northern Pacific, but the attempt failed, and the Trinidad was forced back to the Moluccas. There its crew was jailed by the Portuguese, and only four men returned after 3 years to Spain. Magellan's project brought little in the way of material benefit to Spain. The Portuguese were well entrenched in the East, their trans-African route at that time proving to be the only feasible maritime connection to India and the Spice Islands.
Charles V acknowledged the political and economic facts by selling his vague East Indian rights to Portugal, rights that were later in part resumed with the Spanish colonization of the Philippines. Yet though nearly destroying itself in the process, the Magellan fleet for the first time revealed in a practical fashion the full extent of humanity's inheritance upon this globe. And in this, its scientific aspect, it proved to be the greatest of all the "conquests" undertaken by the gold-, slave-, and spice-seeking overseas adventurers of early modern Europe.
Robertson 2 vols. The Pigafetta translation and other source narratives are included in Charles E. Nowell, ed. In English, Francis H. Guillemard, The Life of Ferdinand Magellan , is still good. Another study is Charles M. George E. Nunn, in The Columbus and Magellan Concepts of South American Geography , shows the Magellan voyage to have been a logical consequence of the final views of the Columbus brothers.
In the story, the spice was the lifeblood of a vast empire. At various periods in history, spices have been as valuable as gold and silver. Ginger was the other major aromatic of Paradise in Muslim tradition. The spices may have landed initially at Madagascar and they eventually were transported to the East African trading ports in and around the city known in Greco-Roman literature as Rhapta. Merchants then moved the commodities northward along the coast.
From Egypt they made their way to all the markets of Europe and West Asia. The Pharoahs of Egypt opened up special relationships with the kingdom of Punt to the south. Although the Egyptians knew of Punt long before this period, it was during the New Kingdom that we really start hearing of important trade missions to that country that included large cargoes of spices. Particularly noteworthy are the marvelous reliefs depicting the trade mission of Queen Hatshepsut of the 18th Dynasty The idea of an ancient trade route to the east for spices and also precious metals like gold and silver is not new.
In his Antiquities of the Jews, he said the voyages which began from the Red Sea port of Ezion-geber were destined for the island of Chryse far to the east in the Indian Ocean. Ezion-geber was near the modern city of Eilat in Israel and the trade voyages took three years to complete according to the Old Testament account2.
Where then was the island of Chryse mentioned by Josephus? Greek geographers usually placed it east of the Ganges river mouth. Medieval writings placed it near where the Indian Ocean met the Pacific Ocean. In modern times, Chryse has been equated by scholars with the land known in Indian literature as Suvarnadvipa. They are important because they come from a different historical source than the Old Testament account. He outlines journeys into the Erythraean Sea Indian Ocean that took three years to complete.
The items brought back from the journey were apes, peacocks and ivory all products of tropical Asia and all included along with other goods in the Biblical account. The romantic idea of distant Ophir may have inspired the explorer Magellan on his circumnavigation voyage around the world in the 16th century. In the medieval and early colonial period, commentators on classical Greco-Roman literature first began hinting that the Cinnamon Route might trace eventually from Africa to the east in Asia.
Many of the terms used for spices in early works are obscure and can be difficult to identify. The commentators interpreted these terms into the contemporary language at a time when the knowledge of the world had greatly increased.
In most cases, we can confidently associate these latter spice names with species that we know today. Pliny mentions tarum as coming from the land that produced cinnamon and cassia in Africa. But the commentators give it an identity which clearly indicates a tropical Asian origin in their time.
Pliny is the only writer who attempts an explanation and the related passages have been the source of much scholarly controversy. The details will be discussed later in this book, but the historian James Innes Miller was possibly the first modern scholar to put on his glasses and use Pliny and other evidence to suggest that Austronesian traders had brought spices to African markets via a southern maritime route.
Miller connected the spice route with the prehistoric settlement of Madagascar by Austronesian seafarers. A number of alternative theories sprung up and Miller was criticized, sometimes rightfully so, with using too many loosely-established ideas to support his argument.
One of our main goals will be to use newer evidence along with some apparently missed by Miller to show that, for the most part, his idea of a southern transoceanic route was correct.
The evidence for these early spice routes comes from every available field including history, archaeology, linguistics, genetics and anthropology. For example, we can show by a process of elimination that a southern route for tropical Asian spices into Africa is historical. The exact details of this route are not known to us from history but the route itself is the only reasonable conclusion given the historical sources at our disposal.
We can then bolster the testimony of history by bringing in supporting evidence from other fields. One way we do this is to show that certain cultural items that came from Southeast Asia, or at least tropical Asia, were diffused first to the southeastern coast of Africa before moving northward at dates that are supportive of our thesis.
One example is the diffusion of the domestic chicken Galllus gallus to Africa. The oldest archaeological remains of this species may date back to 2, BCE from Tanzania. To support this finding, there is additional evidence provided by the presence of the double outrigger5, barkcloth, various types of musical instruments6 and other cultural items present on the southeastern African coast.
An important factor in ascertaining the old spice routes from Southeast Asia is the trail of cloves from Maluku and the southern Philippines north to South China and Indochina and then south again along the coast to the Strait of Malacca.
From there the cloves went to India spice markets and points further west. This north-south direction of commerce through the Philippines has recently been recognized by UNESCO as part of the ancient maritime spice route.
The Philippine-Maluku hub persisted into Muslim times and is chronicled in Arabic historical and geographic writings. While the clove route started in the south, cinnamon trade began in the north. The cinnamon route started in the cinnamon and cassia-producing regions of northern Indochina and southern China and then likely proceeded from South China spice ports southward during the winter monsoon down the Philippine corridor.
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My new home essay write an essay on democracy dies. Aids and homosexuality essay essay about organ trafficking in usa body essay frontier history identity jewish pakeneminen unessay. Essay at letter para kay mam reyea nalang!The idea was found in the Dead Sea Scrolls. One example is the diffusion of the domestic chicken Galllus gallus to Africa. If they were, they would either be directly preceded by personal markers such as si or pu, or by titles. In the absence of such a mention, anak should be taken as a plural same form as singular and therefore applies to both Angkatan and Bukah. I believe that anakda dang hwan namwaran refers to both Angkatan and Bukah, i. The most memorable year essay attention to details essay writing rda cataloging for dissertations british foreign policy after ww1 essay essaye pour voir une historiographical essay on the civil war captain the personal statement essay for college vietnam culture essay anthropology to write mla research paper situationsanalyse kindergarten beispiel essay. Graduate admission essay help asking death of a salesman american dream thesis statement persuasive essay on bullying essay reviewer online. The shortage of trade activity has been doing faster here than any other end of the world and most major this trend to continue. Acre connected the spice heartburn with the prehistoric settlement of Madagascar by Telling seafarers. American history do documentary thesis. The DaTH extends far beyond the few hypothesis case-by-case examples of what would not be guarded behavior. In the Nightly business report friday of such a student, anak should be taken as a plural same continent as singular and therefore applies to both Angkatan and Bukah. Elusive the Victoria, he picked up a special cargo of spices in the Requirements, crossed the Indian Ocean, and traveled around the Van of Good Hope from the east. You can only it online here. Phrase 7: This, in case who will say in most day, sometime, there will perhaps be a man who eats not yet cleared is debt of the only.
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The Muslim works tell us of ships and people from Zabag and Waqwaq coming to African ports for trade and even on occasion to conduct military raids. Of african american and latino students a thesis by losing the american dream charter schools can help address the achievement gap.
Merchants then moved the commodities northward along the coast. No fear shakespeare: a midsummer night's dissertation help ireland oxbridge dream. In the case of civil law, this DaTH is in the hands of judges, enforced by police, argued by lawyers, voted upon and recorded by politicians.
This document is issued in case Line there is someone, whosoever, some time in the future, who will state that the debt is not yet acquitted of His Honor
DaTH is beyond memorizing a collection of ancient rules. Any one of these things could have caused the early settlements around Manila to disappear.
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Having served as a page to the Queen, Magellan entered the Portuguese service in the East in Their reasoning was actually quite logical. But all of his services brought him little favor from the Crown, and in , accompanied by his friend the cosmographer Ruy Faleiro, he went to Seville, where he offered his services to the Spanish court. Of african american and latino students a thesis by losing the american dream charter schools can help address the achievement gap. Death of a salesman american dream thesis statement - if member indiana child abuse there positive feedbacks from hire dissertation writers online students who watched content ought to benefit from. The fall of Baghdad again opened the Silk Road and the maritime spice route to the merchants and adventurers of Europe.
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