Inconsistencies in this facet may arise from different levels of familiarity with scaling and scoring formats. The second general point is the need to consider collaboration, of any kind, as always between people. Engelen and Brettel 24 justify their use based on existing theoretical and empirical evidence plus their managerial relevance, since organizations typically carry out their international activities along national borders.
In the first, we start from something that is already a question in our minds. Journal of International Marketing 16 2 : 64— Journal of Business Research 64 5 : — Similarly, alternative iterative approaches have been proposed in the literature, providing comparability without ignoring emic factors. Michaels, S. Indeed, there are a growing number of quantitative 'variable' analyses that compare the health experiences and outcomes of groups of people similarly labelled and categorised across countries [ 23 — 26 ].
They may also help to sharpen the focus of analysis of the subject under study by suggesting new perspectives. The use of local agents is also advised. For instance, a bicycle is considered a means of transport in the Netherlands but for recreational purposes in the United States. It is beyond the scope of the current paper to describe comprehensively the diversity of terms and their meanings in use across the three countries. If needed, variations in the data collection procedures for example, personal interviews, mail surveys, and so on are justified to achieve equivalence. It is also in a position of power that makes spread more likely.
Similarly, the matching variables need to be relevant, logical and based on theory.
For instance, there was confusion over the terms 'migrant' and 'immigrant'. Specific emphasis was placed on examining how migration and consequent ethno-cultural diversity had been problematized and responded to within the respective healthcare systems. The German situation is, of course, similar to much of Europe where past abuses have given rise to strong concerns regarding the identification of ethnic identity in official data.
Although defining a time span may appear to be a simple matter for a longitudinal study, innumerable problems can arise when national datasets are being used. Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing 19 1 : 23— European programmes often include all EU member states, although the countries concerned may represent very different stages of economic and social development and be influenced by different cultural value systems, assumptions and thought patterns. In their assessment, constraints are successively introduced in different parameters for example, factor loadings in metric invariance; intercepts in scalar invariance.
Official statistics may be produced in too highly aggregated a form and may not have been collected systematically over time.
Irrespective of the organisational structure of the research, a shift is occurring in emphasis away from descriptive, universalist and 'culture-free' approaches to social phenomena. Kagitcibasi, S. They are also more likely to be influenced by what is known as selective attrition , which means that some individuals are simply more likely to drop out of a study than others, which can influence the validity of the study. Large dif- ferences in forms of dress or speech are often anticipated. It is as well an area where cultural analyses have already provided us with new views of behavior and could help answer questions that those new views provoke. Furthermore, there has been change over time in both question wording and in response options in both countries.
It includes a wide range of issues such as product category definitions, socio-demographic classes or occupational categories. Equivalence of administration refers to the fact that the research settings and the instructions must be equivalent, not identical. Yet, unlike other fields [ 14 , 15 ] public health researchers have not to-date given considered attention to the opportunities and challenges that cross-national comparative studies offer to the field of migration, ethnicity and health. Problems regarding sampling in this level fall into three areas: the choice of respondents, the conflict between comparability and representativeness and the sampling methods. In recent years, use of the Census ethnic categories has been required in statutory agencies including the health sector, and, though data are far from complete, it is common to find information on service use and outcome by ethnic group. Therefore, defining the unit of analysis, that is, selecting the relevant contexts to be compared is a priority in cross-cultural research.
Examples of building on naturally occurring variations could be drawn from many areas, ranging from schooling to health or disease, environmental or social change, legal systems, state regulatory systems, or social supports. Cross-national comparativists are forced to attempt to adopt a different cultural perspective, to learn to understand the thought processes of another culture and to see it from the native's viewpoint, while also reconsidering their own country from the perspective of a skilled, external observer.