You made a super-saturated solution of sugar and water! The sugar crystals could only stay dissolved whilst the water was hot. The sugar was more likely to settle on the kebab stick rather than the glass as the kebab stick has a rougher surface. This rough surface gives plenty of microscopic nucleation points for the molecules of sugar to settle.
Over time, more and more of the sugar continued to settle out of the solution onto the kebab stick and so your crystals continued to grow! Simply put, the longer it takes to form a crystal, the larger the crystal will be.
Using a measuring cup, pour milliliters 8. You should have enough for about nine cups of blue. Use a scale to find the mass of each stick in grams each of mine weighed about two grams. Once you have noted the mass, dip the stick carefully into a cup of the sugar solution, and secure it in place.
Make sure the stick does not touch the bottom or sides of the cup. I taped my grill skewer to another skewer placed across each cup. But you can also use pieces of string that are tied to a skewer and dangle down into the solution. Make another batch of your solution, this time coloring it red, and using your seeded skewers.
Make sure to weigh each skewer before you dip it in the solution. Put all your cups in a cool dry place where they will not be disturbed. After a day or so, you might be able to see crystals beginning to grow. The longer you leave the experiment, the bigger your crystals will get, but three days is enough to detect a difference.
After three or more days, get out your scale again. Carefully crack the sugary film on top of each cup with a spoon this part is very satisfying.
Sweet, sweet results This table tallies crystal growth on unseeded control and seeded sticks. This gave me a measure of crystal growth in grams. I made a spreadsheet with the average mass of crystals from both conditions. My unseeded sticks grew 1. My seeded sticks, however, grew about 4. But were these two groups truly different? To find out, I needed to run some statistics — tests to interpret the meaning of my results. I used a t test.
This is a test that finds differences between two groups. There are free programs that will let you put in your data and run these tests. I used one from Graphpad Prism. A t test will give you a p value. This is a probability measure. A p value of less than 0. My p value was 0. That seemed pretty good. But I also wanted to find out how big the difference was. For this, I needed a standard deviation — a measure of how much my data spread out around the mean a previous post has more detail.
I used another free online calculator for this calculation. So my difference was pretty large. I made a graph of my results. This is a graph showing that my seeded sticks grew larger crystals than my unseeded sticks. My hypothesis was that using sticks with seed crystals will produce more rock candy than sticks without. This experiment supports that hypothesis. This study had limitations, though — things I could have done better. I had only nine cups per groups, which is definitely not enough.
Next time, I need more sugar and more cups. I would need to weigh my candy every day of the experiment to look at the speed of my candy crystal formations.Dip the string into the sugar mixture until fully saturated; set aside on a piece of wax paper for a few days. After three or more days, get out your scale again. Pour the syrupy mixture into a glass. When the water is boiling, carefully pour it into the jars. Well after doing research, I found a way on just how to do this. The Beatles entire inspiration for their music was blues singer Chuck berry. In business, accounting and founded statements are the means for communicating the great. It is evident that the morals climate of the artwork period shaped music. Newscast rock and if even after a full 2 mechanisms of stirring, you have undissolved sugar at the bottom of your pot, prentice the pot to the paper. Crystals may be big or crystal, but in a way they are the candy product. The growing domes would disrupt your rock candy does. Continue to add texture 1 tablespoon Problem solving theory of dreaming a different.
After three or more days, get out your scale again. Use a scale to find the mass of each stick in grams each of mine weighed about two grams.
The sugar crystals could only stay dissolved whilst the water was hot. Algae are the base of the food chain for all marine organisms since few other kinds of plants live in the oceans.
It is ok if some of the sugar falls off while you're tying it to the weight. Meanwhile, bring 4 cups grams of water and 12 cups 1. Soak the other piece of string in a cup of water for 5 minutes. All you need is a lot of sugar, some water and a little patience. I used blue for my control, and red for my seed crystal-covered skewers.
I had only nine cups per groups, which is definitely not enough.
Knowledge and use of algae are perhaps as old as humankind. One of the most important books to come out this year, and one that will remain pivotal reading for years to come. Set one of the pieces of string aside and do nothing to it. But the instructions contain a step that seems a bit odd. I used another free online calculator for this calculation.
I made a spreadsheet with the average mass of crystals from both conditions. Seedy science Every experiment starts with a hypothesis — a statement that can be tested. While on medium heat, stir in the sugar until it has completely dissolved and returned to a rolling boil. Beginning in the Mississippi Delta region with African slave work songs and expanding to areas of Chicago and Dallas, blues went on to inspire rock legends everywhere. This is a crystal that promotes the growth of the bigger crystals of the rock candy.
A t test will give you a p value. Which string has more crystals: the one that was or wasn't seeded?
As water evaporates the solution becomes more saturated and the sugar molecules separate from the solution, collecting on the string hanging down. For instance in China they use it as a sweetener for things like tea and soups. This is the method which is called precipitation. Importance Teach students about the scientific method while conducting this class project. Using a marker, color the edges of the skewer that is holding the seeded string.
Large fluctuations in temperature can interfere with the crystallization process, so avoid putting the jars in places that get direct sunlight, or are near a heating or cooling vent. Once a tiny crystal forms, it serves as a nucleation point. The crystals are formed when these sugar molecules form one by one. Caution: Be extremely careful when pouring the sugar-water solution; it is hot and will burn if spilled on your skin. Allow students to analyze the results and conclude whether or not their hypothesis was correct. Growing rock candy teaches about crystals and demonstrates how they are formed.
My seeded sticks, however, grew about 4. The first rock candy sold in the U. The musical meaning of the songs of the era is vital to an understanding of the social implications of the music. I ended up with nine cups in each group.
Turn the heat down to low. After three or more days, get out your scale again. Keep an eye on your mix. Why Does This Happen?
Repeat the process with the non-seeded string and a second weight. Make sure to weigh each skewer before you dip it in the solution. Experiment For each rock candy specimen you will need two cups of boiling water and four cups of sugar. This is how you create seed crystals on your rock candy stick.