Primary research articles contain the original data and conclusions of the researchers who were involved in the experiments. You alone are responsible for developing such skills to a high level. Use normal prose in this and in every other section of the paper — avoid informal lists, and use complete sentences. The results objectively present the data or information that you gathered through your project. Omit information that is irrelevant to a third party, such as what color ice bucket you used, or which individual logged in the data. Reading the methods section is helpful in understanding exactly what the authors did.
If you make the four points listed above, you will need a minimum of four paragraphs. Style As always, use past tense when you refer to your results, and put everything in a logical order. General style Specific editorial requirements for submission of a manuscript will always supercede instructions in these general guidelines. Present background information only as needed in order support a position.
When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment. Abstract The abstract is a summary of the paper.
Use the past tense. It is where they draw conclusions about the results. Analyze your data, then prepare the analyzed converted data in the form of a figure graph , table, or in text form. It usually highlights the main question s the authors investigated, provides the key results of their experiments, and gives an overview of the authors' conclusions.
Explain all of your observations as much as possible, focusing on mechanisms. If you practice economy of words, that should be plenty of space within which to say all that you need to say. Analyze your data, then prepare the analyzed converted data in the form of a figure graph , table, or in text form. Materials and Methods The materials and methods section gives the technical details of how the experiments were carried out, including the types of controls used and where unusual resources like a bacterial strain or a publicly available data set were obtained. The objective is to document all specialized materials and general procedures, so that another individual may use some or all of the methods in another study or judge the scientific merit of your work. It is also called "Materials and Methods".
ISBN REQUIRED for Bioc , , recommended for other science courses that include writing As you polish up your writing skills please make use of the following resources Instructor feedback on previous assignments Common errors in student research papers Selected writing rules somewhat less serious than the other resources For Biosciences majors the general guidelines apply to future course work, as can be seen by examining the guidelines for the advanced experimental sciences research paper Bioc What was found? In general, primary research articles should be consulted any time you need to get more information about how an experiment was carried out, or if you need to review the original data, which you may want to do in order to base your experiments off their data, or to evaluate for yourself the validity of the authors' conclusions.
If the abstract indicates the paper is of interest to you, move on to the introduction. Function: The function of the Results section is to objectively present your key results , without interpretation, in an orderly and logical sequence using both text and illustrative materials Tables and Figures. Writing a materials and methods section Materials: Describe materials separately only if the study is so complicated that it saves space this way. After all, the paper will be submitted after all of the work is completed. When your paper includes more than one experiment, use subheadings to help organize your presentation by experiment.
Results The page length of this section is set by the amount and types of data to be reported. You will find background information and a statement of the author's hypothesis in the introduction.
But if you aren't familiar with the topic, or if skimming reveals terms or concepts you don't understand, you'll need to read the introduction and then the methods section carefully, stopping to consult other resources or cited literature to augment your understanding. Anemia is a condition in which there is insufficient hemoglobin in the blood.
While you are learning to write effectively, the limit will be extended to five typed pages. If you find yourself baffled by the introduction, try going to other sources for information about the topic before you tackle the rest of the paper. If you make the four points listed above, you will need a minimum of four paragraphs. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area.
This kind of information is critical for figuring out how to do your own experiments, and even whether the project will be physically possible given your equipment constraints. If your results agree, then describe the theory that the evidence supported.