On page 4 of your essay, for example, your top right-hand corner should show: Jones 4 Page numbers must be written in Arabic numerals.
Do not add anything fancy to decorate a page number. Simply write: 4 Remember, there is no period after the page number. Electronic submission of documents is becoming more common as e-mail is being used widely.
This system will facilitate the citation of sources by identifying a specific paragraph for reference very quickly. Spacing Between Words In general, leave one space between words and one space after every comma, semi-colon, or colon. Summarize the study, including the following elements in any abstract. Try to keep the first two items to no more than one sentence each. General intent The purpose of an introduction is to aquaint the reader with the rationale behind the work, with the intention of defending it.
It places your work in a theoretical context, and enables the reader to understand and appreciate your objectives. Writing an introduction The abstract is the only text in a research paper to be written without using paragraphs in order to separate major points. Approaches vary widely, however for our studies the following approach can produce an effective introduction. Describe the importance significance of the study - why was this worth doing in the first place? Provide a broad context. Defend the model - why did you use this particular organism or system?
What are its advantages? You might comment on its suitability from a theoretical point of view as well as indicate practical reasons for using it. Provide a rationale. State your specific hypothesis es or objective s , and describe the reasoning that led you to select them. Very briefy describe the experimental design and how it accomplished the stated objectives. Style: Use past tense except when referring to established facts.
After all, the paper will be submitted after all of the work is completed. Organize your ideas, making one major point with each paragraph. If you make the four points listed above, you will need a minimum of four paragraphs. Present background information only as needed in order support a position. The reader does not want to read everything you know about a subject. As always, pay attention to spelling, clarity and appropriateness of sentences and phrases.
Materials and Methods There is no specific page limit, but a key concept is to keep this section as concise as you possibly can. People will want to read this material selectively. The reader may only be interested in one formula or part of a procedure. Materials and methods may be reported under separate subheadings within this section or can be incorporated together.
General intent This should be the easiest section to write, but many students misunderstand the purpose. The objective is to document all specialized materials and general procedures, so that another individual may use some or all of the methods in another study or judge the scientific merit of your work. It is not to be a step by step description of everything you did, nor is a methods section a set of instructions. In particular, it is not supposed to tell a story. By the way, your notebook should contain all of the information that you need for this section.
Writing a materials and methods section Materials: Describe materials separately only if the study is so complicated that it saves space this way. Include specialized chemicals, biological materials, and any equipment or supplies that are not commonly found in laboratories. Do not include commonly found supplies such as test tubes, pipet tips, beakers, etc.
If use of a specific type of equipment, a specific enzyme, or a culture from a particular supplier is critical to the success of the experiment, then it and the source should be singled out, otherwise no.
Materials may be reported in a separate paragraph or else they may be identified along with your procedures. In biosciences we frequently work with solutions - refer to them by name and describe completely, including concentrations of all reagents, and pH of aqueous solutions, solvent if non-aqueous. Methods: See the examples in the writing portfolio package Report the methodology not details of each procedure that employed the same methodology Describe the mehodology completely, including such specifics as temperatures, incubation times, etc.
To be concise, present methods under headings devoted to specific procedures or groups of procedures Generalize - report how procedures were done, not how they were specifically performed on a particular day. If well documented procedures were used, report the procedure by name, perhaps with reference, and that's all.
For example, the Bradford assay is well known. You need not report the procedure in full - just that you used a Bradford assay to estimate protein concentration, and identify what you used as a standard.
Style: It is awkward or impossible to use active voice when documenting methods without using first person, which would focus the reader's attention on the investigator rather than the work. Therefore when writing up the methods most authors use third person passive voice. Use normal prose in this and in every other section of the paper — avoid informal lists, and use complete sentences. What to avoid Materials and methods are not a set of instructions. Perhaps suggest what about this topic needs further research.
Revising the Final Draft Check overall organization: logical flow of introduction, coherence and depth of discussion in body, effectiveness of conclusion. Paragraph level concerns: topic sentences, sequence of ideas within paragraphs, use of details to support generalizations, summary sentences where necessary, use of transitions within and between paragraphs.
Sentence level concerns: sentence structure, word choices, punctuation, spelling.
Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Some teachers prefer that no running head appear on the first page.
Live Support 4. Text should complement any figures or tables, not repeat the same information.
The objective is to document all specialized materials and general procedures, so that another individual may use some or all of the methods in another study or judge the scientific merit of your work. When paragraphs are not indented, it is difficult for a reader to see where a new paragraph begins, hence quadruple-space is called for between paragraphs. Instead of providing individual recommendations for each publishing format printed, online, e-books etc.
If corrections on any page are numerous or substantial, revise your document and reprint the page. To make a paper readable Print or type using a 12 point standard font, such as Times, Geneva, Bookman, Helvetica, etc. The objective is to document all specialized materials and general procedures, so that another individual may use some or all of the methods in another study or judge the scientific merit of your work. General intent An abstract is a concise single paragraph summary of completed work or work in progress.
Documentation: consistent use of one system, citation of all material not considered common knowledge, appropriate use of endnotes or footnotes, accuracy of list of works cited. Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a high-quality printer. The running head of a research paper. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Space is so valuable in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, that authors are asked to restrict discussions to four pages or less, double spaced, typed.
Refer to work done by specific individuals including yourself in past tense. Designed to be printed out and used in the classroom. Double-space the entire research paper, including quotations, notes, and the list of works cited.