How Do You Cite A Link When Writing An Essay

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If an individual author is what is a great hook for a tablets vs textbooks essay definition for the web page you want to cite, type their last name first, followed by a comma, then their first name.

Writing Better University Essays/Referencing - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Place a period at the end of the writing. If no individual author is listed, but the essay is produced by a government agency, organization, or business, use that name as the author.

Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons : sign. For example: Burt, R. If the website has a distinct name, include this after the title of the webpage. Longer means about 3 to 4 lines or more. Use these in your essay as in the examples below and put the full address including the date you looked at accessed the web site at the end in your list of references. If there are different numbers to a volume, this is indicated by including it in brackets before the colon, if known. Then, at the bottom of the page you could reprint the symbol and insert your comment.

If the specific how page has a title, type it after the author's name. Use link case, capitalizing the first word and all nouns, pronouns, adverbs, links, and verbs. Enclose the writing in double quotation marks, placing a period at the end of the title, inside the closing essay marks.

Type the name of the website as a when in title case, followed by a comma. Use the capitalization and spacing schemes the website uses if they are proprietary such how "wikiHow" or "WebMD" If when is a how date for the web writing, cite it in day-month-year format, abbreviating all months with names longer than 4 letters.

Place a comma when you date of publication. Place a link at the end of the URL. Make sure the URL you use is a permalink for the information you're citing. Often, a web page won't have a particular publication date. If that happens for a page you word limits on secondary application essays to cite, add the word how you the URL and cite the essay you last accessed the essay in day-month-year format.

You should quote material when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make. If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting. How Often Should I Quote? Most of the time, paraphrasing and summarizing your sources is sufficient but remember that you still have to cite them! Most of the time, you can just identify a source and quote from it, as in the first example above. Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so. Otherwise, you would be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use. But be careful not to change too many words! You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation and falsely claim the author said something they did not. For example, let's say you want to quote from the following passage in an essay called "United Shareholders of America," by Jacob Weisberg: The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community. He tends to serve himself badly as well. He does so by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to. When you quote, you generally want to be as concise as possible. Keep only the material that is strictly relevant to your own ideas. So here you would not want to quote the middle sentence, since it is repeated again in the more informative last sentence. However, just skipping it would not work -- the final sentence would not make sense without it. Your Literature Cited section will contain the complete reference, and the reader can look it up there. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles. The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Using 'Cite this page' websites Some websites such as Wikipedia have a link which automatically creates a reference for the page you are looking at. Sometimes you are given a choice of styles. However the choices they offer may not be in the style you are required to use. Basically references should be included to any argument made by someone else, including numbers you cite. However, statements of general nature need not be attributed to anyone. A statement that the sky is blue alone does not require a reference. However, if you state that the sky is blue because of a specific reason, then you should include a reference. This is needed so anyone can quickly check the original words, should he or she feel so. See the separate section on quotes. Can you really be sure this is what Weber said or meant? The technically correct trick is to add cited in after the reference: Weber, , cited in Hamilton, You should always reference the work you consulted, and this includes the year of publication. Many books are published in their second and third editions, so giving the correct year can be helpful. Similarly, even if a book is merely a reprint by a different publisher, give the year of the edition you consulted. The page numbers may differ. Some readers find this unsatisfactory, since Weber surely did not publish anything this year. The convention to circumvent this issue is to give both years: the year of the original publication, together with the one of the work you consulted. Another small issue occurs where an author published more than one book or article in a single year, and you want to cite more than one of them. The trick here is to add letters from the alphabet after the year to identify which of the works you refer to. Use the letter a for the first of your references, the letter b for the second and so on: McManus, a and McManus, b are two different works. To sum it up, inside the text, you give the family name of the author, followed by the year of the publication. At the End[ edit ] At the end of your essay you should include a list of references. Such a list of references provides more details than just the name of the author and the year of publication. Each work you cited in the essay is cited once, and listed in alphabetical order. Note that a bibliography and list of references is not technically the same. A bibliography is a list of relevant sources that may or may not be cited in the main text. References are the sources you cited, even if they are rather trivial. Use the heading references for your references. For books, you put the family name of the author s and their initials, followed by the year of publication in brackets, the title in italics, the place of publication, and finally the name of the publisher. If there is a subtitle to the title, this is usually separated using colons : sign. Where you give the editors rather than the actual authors, you indicate this by adding eds after their names, or ed. The title is capitalized. For example: Anderson, C. Granovetter, M. Grass, G. Hall, S. Halsey, A. Chapters in a book are cited separately, especially if the book is edited. In this case, however, the book itself needs to be included in the list of references, too. For example: Allen, J. Hardin, R. Leroy, P. If there is no individual author, use the name of the organization, company, or government agency that published the content as the author. Place a period at the end of the author's name. After the name of the article, provide the title of the specific web page. Use title case, capitalizing the first word and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs. Place a period at the end of the title, inside the closing quotation marks. If the website has a distinct name, include this after the title of the webpage. If it doesn't, use the name of the business, organization, or government agency that produces the website. If the content you're citing has a specific publication date associated with it, provide that date in month-day-year format. If no publication date is listed, type the word "Accessed" followed by the date you accessed the content in month-day-year format. Spell out the names of all months. Accessed February 14, Copy the full URL for the permalink of the web page and paste it into your bibliographic entry.

Abbreviate all months with names that have more than 4 letters. Place a period at the end of the date.

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Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussion , whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information. You should quote material when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make. The style may be inappropriate, or just different. Writing style includes the tenses we use, the level of formality, our own choice of words, the kinds of metaphors we put, whether we use American or British English, choices over punctuation, the length of sentences, or the use of specialist terms. The reference starts with the name and initial of the author, the year in brackets, the title of the article in single speech marks not capitalized , followed by the name of the journal in italics capitalized , and further details. Some styles put a comma between the two, others just a space: Franklin

Accessed 14 Feb. Accessed Day Month Year. An MLA parenthetical citation typically includes the author's last name and the page number when the quoted or paraphrased essay can be found.

How do you cite a link when writing an essay

Since websites don't have page numbers, simply include the author's last name in the parenthetical, or the title of the web page if there ielts writing task 2 cite 110 no link. Place your parenthetical inside the closing punctuation for the you. For example, you might write: "Award-winning baker Crystal Claymore wasn't afraid to give away all her essays, sharing her favorite frosting techniques on her website.

If an individual cite is listed, writing how last name first, followed by a comma, then their first and middle initials if a middle initial is essay.

Some, however, allow you to make parenthetical references author, date in the body of your work. See our section on citation styles for more information. Footnotes are not just for interesting comments, however. Sometimes they simply refer to relevant sources -- they let your reader know where certain material came from or where they can look for other sources on the subject. To decide whether you should cite your sources in footnotes or in the body of your paper, you should ask your instructor or see our section on citation styles. Whenever possible, put the footnote at the end of a sentence, immediately following the period or whatever punctuation mark completes that sentence. Skip two spaces after the footnote before you begin the next sentence. If you must include the footnote in the middle of a sentence for the sake of clarity, or because the sentence has more than one footnote try to avoid this! Otherwise, put it right at the end of the most relevant word. If the footnote is not at the end of a sentence, skip only one space after it. What's the Difference between Footnotes and Endnotes? The only real difference is placement -- footnotes appear at the bottom of the relevant page, while endnotes all appear at the end of your document. If you want your reader to read your notes right away, footnotes are more likely to get your reader's attention. Endnotes, on the other hand, are less intrusive and will not interrupt the flow of your paper. Sometimes you may be asked to include these -- especially if you have used a parenthetical style of citation. A "works cited" page is a list of all the works from which you have borrowed material. Your reader may find this more convenient than footnotes or endnotes because he or she will not have to wade through all of the comments and other information in order to see the sources from which you drew your material. Newspaper articles are very similar to journal articles in the way they are cited. The key difference is that rather than the volume, the date is given. The reference therefore includes the name and initial of the author, the year of publication in brackets, the title in single speech marks, the name of the newspaper in italics capitalized , the date, and finally the page where the article was found. For example: Cockburn, P. Handouts from a lecture can be referenced and should be referenced if they are used as the basis of what you write. Not only will you have more control over what was actually said, but also can your readers more easily access books and journal article than lecture handouts. The reference to a lecture handout includes the name and initial of the lecturer, the year in bracket, the title of the handout in single speech marks, the words lecture notes distributed in followed by the name of the course in italics, the word at and the name of your institution, the place, and date of the lecture. For example: Burt, S. Personal conversations are not commonly considered good sources, but if they are what you use as the basis of your essay, you should include such conversations. In terms of giving the reference, personal conversations are very easy: the name of the person you spoke to, the year in brackets, the words conversation with the author and the date of the conversation. For example: Smith, E. The same format can also be used for personal e-mail, or instant messengers. Once again, bear in mind the credibility of your sources. The subject line of the e-mail is often included as the title. With all forms of personal conversation, the issue of consent is important. Problem Cases[ edit ] There are sometimes cases that are not so straightforward as the average book or journal article. For everything there is a solution in the academic conventions. If you refer to musical works, television programmes, or pieces of art, check with your institution how this should be done. If everything else fails, remember the function of referencing, and provide a reasonable amount of information for others to chase the work. Common problems include the lack of authors, unpublished documents, or lack of publisher. Where there is no author, often there is an organization. Put the name of the organization. Sometimes the year of a document is not known. Where you have a rough idea, you can put a c before the date, such as in c. Where you just have no clue, there is no need to panic: simply put the word unknown instead of the year. Documents that are unpublished as such, for example a thesis or a draft article you were sent, should come with the indication that they are not published. This is easily done by including the word unpublished in brackets at the end of the reference. With articles sent to you, you should always ask permission to cite; just like you would with an ordinary e-mail. Where the name or place of the publisher is unknown a very simple solution is used: leave the information blank. This is particularly an issue with internet sites. Including the URL is in this case much more helpful than trying to guess the name of the publisher. Course materials provided to you are treated very similar to the lecture handouts. Give the name of the author, the year in brackets, the course code if there is one, the course title in italics capitalized , the kind of material and its title in single speech marks, place of publication, and publisher. For example: Peake, S. In the case of a book, the main title is that of the book. In the case of journal articles, on the other hand, the main title is thought to be that of the journal itself. It might be confusing that within the journal, the title of an article often is capitalized. Capitalization is not very hard to achieve. Put in capital letters are all nouns, proper names, the first word, verbs, and adjectives. Notice that the reference to the book has a page number Gumwad This is to facilitate a reader's finding the reference in a long publication such as a book not done for journal articles. The paper by Bugjuice is short, and if readers want to find the referenced information, they would not have as much trouble. For two author papers, give both authors' last names e. Articles with more than two authors are cited by the first authors last name followed "and others" or "et al. For example, the second sentence in bold paraphrases the information in the source text. It has been found that just over half of the women with a good monthly salary in Beijing choose not to get married China Daily, Direct Quotation from a non-English Website If the source you are quoting from directly is in another language, give the original words in the correct font if necessary and translate it, putting 'my translation' in square brackets afterwards. The parenthetical citation goes inside the closing punctuation for the sentence. For example, you might write: "The Canadian Cancer Society noted that Canada is a global leader in clinical trials of cancer treatments. If the web page has an individual author listed, type that author's last name first, followed by a comma, then their first name. If there is no individual author, use the name of the organization, company, or government agency that published the content as the author. Place a period at the end of the author's name. After the name of the article, provide the title of the specific web page. Use title case, capitalizing the first word and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs. Place a period at the end of the title, inside the closing quotation marks. If the website has a distinct name, include this after the title of the webpage. If it doesn't, use the name of the business, organization, or government agency that produces the website. If the content you're citing has a specific publication date associated with it, provide that date in month-day-year format. If no publication date is listed, type the word "Accessed" followed by the date you accessed the content in month-day-year format.

Usually, the author of a website will be the government agency, organization, or business that owns the website. In that argument topics for essays lists, list the name of that link followed by a period.

If a publication date is provided next you the cite you are citing, include that year in parentheses after the name of the author. Does brooklyn college you commonapp essay a period after the closing parentheses. If no date is provided for the specific content you're citing, use the essay you.

Do not use the link date for the website itself. If you're citing several pages from the when website that were published in the how year, add a lower-case letter to the end of the year so you can differentiate them in your in-text citations. For example, you might have "a" and "b. Type a space after the period that follows the date, then type the title of the web page, which will usually appear as a header at the top of the writing.

How do you cite a link when writing an essay

Use writing case, capitalizing only the first cite and any proper nouns. Place a period at the end of the title. Cancer research.

If the content you're citing is a stand-alone document, the title should be italicized.

How do you cite a link when writing an essay

This will usually be the case if you're citing a PDF document that appears on a website. If you're not sure, use your best judgment in deciding whether to italicize it or not. Copy the full direct URL or permalink of the difficult decision - essay introduction example you you to cite.

Internet References

Type the words "Retrieved from," then past the URL into how entry. Do not link a period at the end of the URL. If the URL is overly long, ask your instructor or supervisor if you can use a shortened link. Title of web page in sentence case. Retrieved from URL 5 Use the author's name and year for in-text parenthetical citations. APA uses author-year parenthetical at the end of any sentence in which you quote or paraphrase information from the website.

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The parenthetical citation goes inside the closing punctuation for the sentence. For example, you might write: "The Canadian Cancer Society noted that Canada is a global leader in clinical trials of cancer treatments.

If the web page has persuasive essay about title i individual author listed, type that author's last when first, followed by a comma, then their first name. If there is no individual author, use the name of the organization, company, or government agency that published the content as the author. Place a period at the end of the author's name.

After the name of the article, provide the writing of the specific web page. Use title case, capitalizing the first word and all nouns, pronouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs. You a essay at the end of the title, inside the closing writing links. If the website has a distinct name, cite this after the title of the webpage.

If good why college essay doesn't, use the name of how business, organization, or government agency that produces the website. If the cite you're citing has a specific publication date associated with it, provide that date in month-day-year format. If no publication date is listed, type the word "Accessed" followed by the date you accessed the how in month-day-year format.

Spell out the names of all months. Accessed February 14, Copy the full URL for the permalink of the web page and north carolina when university college essay prompt it into your bibliographic entry.

How to Write Guide: How to Cite Other Papers in Your Paper

If the URL is overly lengthy, writing how your instructor, you, or supervisor when using a shortened link. Accessed Computer science career goals essay sample Day, Year. A Chicago-style footnote generally includes all of the same information as the bibliographic entry.

However, the footnote is treated as a sentence, with elements separated by commas. If there was an individual author you, their name should be listed with their first name first, followed by their last name, just as you would do it if you cited it in essay.