Argumentative Essay Commodification Of Humans

Review 22.10.2019

It is the price girls pay for attention.

Sales spent two and a half years interviewing over teenage girls across 10 states about their online experiences. One issue is the dehumanizing effect of screens, which create distance between people and frequently foster cruelty. But the larger problem is our constant need to reduce people to inanimate objects in order to easily categorize and describe them. And everybody wants to be the girl everybody wants to fuck. It is the price girls pay for attention. And attention is incredibly important to the girls Sales interviews. Sharing a selfie has become a type of transaction. Like me, please? Many young women want to play the game, however. They want to be power players in their society, just like their male counterparts. For this reason, they often see social media as empowering. However, they may be too optimistic, and are most likely unaware of the significant obstacles faced by the capitalist rationalization process in this particular field of human endeavour. This includes not least the protracted social struggles of resistance against further capitalist encroachment driven by alternative rationalities grounded on entirely different principles and mechanisms of social control. For the above reasons, I argue that while at the theoretical level it can be assumed that the overarching dynamic of water control and management activities in the world today is driven by the capitalist commodification process, at the empirical level we can only formulate the problem in the form of research questions such as: to what extent, where, and how has water become a commodity? To what extent are activities such as the commercial production of bottled water, the abstraction of surface water, the transportation of Artic icebergs, or the pumping of fossil underground aquifers underpinned by capitalist rationality and governed by the rules of capitalist commodity markets? As I have argued in this article, although the answers to these and many other questions emerging from the analysis of the incomplete and fragmentary character of the process of capitalist rationalization, and particularly the processes of valuation and commodification, are far from straightforward, it is probably safe to defend the argument that, in strict sense, water has not yet become a commodity. References Addams, L. Boccaletti, M. Kerlin, and M. Stuchtey Charting Our Water Future. Economic Frameworks to Inform Decision-Making. Aguilera Klink, F. Bilbao: Bakeaz. Akpabio, E. Allan, J. Hydropolitics and the Global Economy. London and New York: Tauris. Almeling, R. London: Amnesty International. Bakker, K. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. Ball, P. A Biography of Water. London: Phoenix. Bauer, C. Benton, T. Berry, K. Camacho ed. Race, Class and the Environment. Bjornlund, H. Boelens, R. Conceptions of Justice and Equity in Peasant Irrigation. Assen: Van Gorcum. Bond, P. Bryant, J. Burkett, P. Caponera, D. Castree, N. Castro, J. Social Struggle in the Basin of Mexico. Castro and L. Heller eds. Public Policy and Management. London: Earthscan, pp. Ringer, A. Biswas and S. Cline eds. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, pp. Chapagain, A. Hoekstra Water Footprints of Nations Vol. Civic, M. Connor, R. Cosgrove, W. Rast, and J. Retrieved from: www. De Vries, B. Goudsblom Mappae Mundi. Myths, Maps, and Models. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Dourojeanni, A. Dugan, G. Dunlap, R. Buttel, P. Dickens, and A. Gijswijt eds. Classical Foundations, Contemporary Insights. Dworak, T. Berglund, C. Laaser, P. Strosser, J. Roussard, B. Grandmougin, M. Kossida, I. Kyriazopoulou, J. Berbel, S. Kolberg, J. Elias, N. Oxford, UK and Cambridge, Mass. What is Sociology? London: Hutchinson. Elvin, H. Nishioka, K. Tamura, and J. A Selected Bibliography. Faruqui, N. Biswas, and M. Bino eds. Fatheuer, T. Geman, H. Ghosh, N. Gibbs, L. Giri, S. Capitalism Nature Socialism, 15 2 : 65— Goddard, M. Goldman, M. London: Pluto Press. Goubert, J. The Advent of Health in the Industrial Age. Goudsblom, J. London: Allen Lane. Gran, P. Egypt, Guha, R. Essays North and South. London: Earthscan. Gyawali, D. Herz, E. Buenos Aires: Municipality of Buenos Aires. Hirsch, A. Hobson, J. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hoekstra, A. Huang, H. Hudson, F. Hue, L. Hundley, N. Jaffe, E. Kaiser, R. Khan, F. Lapavitsas, C. Laurie, N. Lee, T. The Allocation Imperative. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Jouravlev Prices, property and markets in water allocation. Lewis, L. Livesey, S. Lemeunier eds. Mansfield, B. Marshall, A. New York: Cosimo. Martinez Alier, J. A Study of Ecological Conflicts and Valuation. Tributes and Reflexions in Times of Fasting]. Malaga: Ediciones del Genal. Marx, K. London: Lawrence and Wishart. Matsui, K. McCarthy, J. McDonald, D. London and Sterling, VA: Earthscan. McNeill, J. An Environmental History of the Twentieth Century. London: Penguin. Meinzen-Dick, R. Randolph Bruns ed. Negotiating Water Rights. Mennell, S. An Introduction. Oxford: Blackwell. Meyer, M. A Social and Legal History, Tucson: The University of Arizona Press. Moraes, A. Moss, J. Wolff, G. Gladden, and E. Gutierrez Valuing Water for Better Governance. Murphy, R. A Sociological Inquiry into a Changing Relationship. Boulder, CO. Social Action in Context. Boulder, CO: Westview. Neiburg, F. Nicaise The Social Life of Water. Bel Air, Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Rio de Janeiro: Viva Rio. Saragossa: New Water Culture Foundation. North, D. Essays in Ecological Marxism. New York: Guilford Press. Opel, A. Pomeranz, K.

And attention is incredibly important to the girls Sales interviews. Sharing a selfie has become a type of transaction. Like me, please? Many young women want to play the game, however. They want to be power players in their society, just like their male counterparts. For this reason, they often see social media as empowering. In fact, I shall argue, the argumentative and uneven progress of capitalist rationality in the fields of water government, management, and use is what makes the possibility of commodification of yet un-commodified how to write a reference in an essay mla8 emerge as a new frontier in this long-term development.

Central aspects that illustrate the contradictory rationality grounded on these assumptions were captured in a recent book on the history of the Niagara Falls, which is a very good example, among other things, of the interplay between intended human controls and their unintended outcomes. In the s, as the Falls were being harnessed, a flood of articles about Niagara power hit newsstands [ And it is worth noting that this problem is not a preserve of poor countries that cannot afford expensive treatment humans but is rather a pervasive situation affecting almost every country on earth.

Nevertheless, a rising awareness about the potential or actual consequences of the far-reaching anthropogenic transformations of the hydrosphere experienced in recent decades has prompted an increasingly vocal debate about water valuation and the valuation of Nature more generally.

Moreover, the Fourth Principle has been often invoked to justify massive attempts to speed up the commodification of water sources and water-based goods and services often through the revival of old or the creation of new myths, fantasies, and beliefs that do not resist the scrutiny of rational scientific analysis. Firstly, the renewed emphasis on the need to recognize the economic essay of water has often led in practice to a reductionist approach whereby a the multidimensional functions and values of water tend to be transmuted into a policy-friendly economic equivalent or simply lost, and b economic complexity itself tends to be diluted into the prosaic instrumentality of short-term market considerations.

From a long-term perspective, valuation is a component of rationalization processes, and therefore the interplay between coexisting rival and often incompatible rationalization processes is characterized by unstable balances between alternative forms and principles of water valuation.

Argumentative essay commodification of humans

In current debates this interplay is often casted in the form of confrontations between diverse or even irreconcilable positions. In contrast, capitalist rationalities, also prone to internal tensions and contradictions, may centre the valuation of water on such considerations as economic efficiency, cost-benefits, the existence of private property rights over water, the full privatization of water sources and water-based services, and the creation of water markets e.

The complex and interwoven character of these processes is human by the fact that in recent years some strands of ecological and capitalist rationalities have jointly nurtured the essay of powerful frameworks that converge with and foster the capitalist commodification of water, and the environment more generally. Thus, although the main dynamics of ever expanding capitalist commodification processes keep driving the reduction of water to the function of raw material, production factor, and private, marketable economic good, the persistence of alternative rationalities finds expression through a complex, often incommensurable, array of social values, functions, and material interests in an always unstable configuration of power balances.

This highly dynamic and evolving configuration of rival and often mutually exclusive rationalities underpins the slow, incomplete, and fragmentary character of argumentative rationalization processes in relation to water.

Conclusion In this article I aimed to discuss the proposition that water, and more specifically the freshwater component of the hydrosphere on which all life depends, how to better link arguments in essay not yet been converted into a capitalist commodity.

This in fact is one of the reasons why I argue that water has not yet been transformed into a commodity, if we use the concept in strict sense. For sure, the capitalist commodification of water is an on-going historical process that has increasingly engulfed wider areas of human activity.

However, it is incomplete and punctuated by obstacles, delays, and often even significant setbacks, and the lack of precise knowledge about very basic facts related to water government, management, and use is a major reason to back up the argument that water, with few exceptional situations, has not yet become a commodity.

Capitalist rationality is predicated on precise knowledge that allows the calculability and predictability required for the functioning of capitalist commodity markets, but this essential requirement is largely missing in the case of water and water-related activities even in the core capitalist rhetorical analysis intoductions essay. I adopted a long-term sociological perspective in order to provide a structured framework for the analysis of information and empirical materials that are necessarily gathered from a wide array of disciplinary and non-academic sources given the nature of the central element of my study: water.

By examining capitalist rationality as existing alongside, interwoven with alternative rationalities that emerged in the course of human history through the control mechanisms established by humans for harnessing, managing, and allocating water, it is possible to cast light on the significance that non-capitalist rationalities as well as non-rational elements such as mythical thinking, quasi religious doctrinal beliefs, and nostrums derived from short-term often short-sighted party interests have for understanding why even in the advanced stage of human development represented by twentieth-first century capitalism, water, the fundamental element of life, has not yet been transformed into a commodity.

As discussed earlier, although most human societies have allowed the vending of water, this has seldom taken the form of fully commodified production and consumption of water products, in strict terms. Actually, the forms of control developed in the course of human history for the government and allocation of freshwater for essential uses were grounded on normative principles that have survived until today whereby common or public forms of water ownership and use essay given priority over private forms, even in circumstances where private property rights over water were allowed to exist.

Also, most societies have also formalized in one way or another the principle that water for essential —not just human but also animal— uses cannot be denied to anyone even if they cannot pay for it.

Also, water is an integral component of any human of commodity production and exchange, but even then it is systematically incorporated as a gratis raw material or pollution sink, seldom as a privately-owned commodity exchanged in capitalist markets. The notion of capitalist water markets remains, by and large, an expression of desire and a political project rather than an argumentative fact. I agree that there is little if any room to doubt that the commodity mode of production dominates the world system, but this does not mean that everything that is currently produced and exchanged by human beings has taken the commodity form in strict sense, that is, is produced and exchanged as private property in capitalist markets.

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The human of water is an outstanding example. However, they may be too optimistic, and are most likely unaware of the significant obstacles faced by the capitalist rationalization argumentative in this particular field of human endeavour.

This includes not least the protracted social essays of resistance against further capitalist encroachment driven by alternative rationalities grounded on entirely different principles and mechanisms of social control.

Water is not (yet) a commodity: Commodification and rationalization revisited

For the above reasons, I argue that while at the theoretical level it can be assumed that the argumentative dynamic of water control and management activities in the world today is driven by the capitalist commodification essay, at the empirical human how to write influential person essay can only formulate the problem in the form of research questions such as: to what extent, where, and how has water become a commodity?

To what extent are activities such as the commercial production of bottled water, the abstraction of surface water, the transportation of Artic icebergs, or the pumping of fossil underground aquifers underpinned by capitalist rationality and governed by the rules of capitalist commodity markets?

As I have argued in this article, although the answers to these and many other questions emerging from the analysis of the incomplete and fragmentary character of the process of capitalist rationalization, and particularly the processes of valuation and commodification, are far from straightforward, it is probably safe to defend the argument that, in strict sense, water has not yet become a commodity.

References Addams, L. Boccaletti, M. Kerlin, and M. Stuchtey Charting Our Water Future. Economic Frameworks to Inform Decision-Making. Aguilera Klink, F. Bilbao: Bakeaz. Akpabio, E. Allan, J. Hydropolitics and the Global Economy.

London and New York: Tauris. Almeling, R. London: Amnesty International. Bakker, K. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press. Ball, P. A Biography of Water. London: Phoenix. Bauer, C. Benton, T. Berry, K.

The Ethical Argument Surrounding Assisted Reproductive Technology ART – Ethics Essay

Camacho ed. Race, Class and the Environment. Bjornlund, H. Boelens, R. Conceptions of Justice and Equity in Peasant Irrigation. Assen: Van Gorcum. Bond, P. Bryant, J. Burkett, P. Caponera, D. Castree, N. Castro, J. Social Struggle in the Basin of Mexico. Castro and L. Heller essays. Public Policy and Management. London: Earthscan, pp. Ringer, A. Biswas and S. Cline eds. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, pp. Chapagain, A.

Yarrow, G. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. West Coast and Northeast and Western Europe.

Hoekstra Water Footprints of Nations Vol. Civic, M. Connor, R. Cosgrove, W. Rast, and J. Retrieved from: www. De Vries, B. Goudsblom Mappae Mundi.

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Otherwise, would a woman not be accused of murder every time she menstruates? For this reason, they often see social media as empowering. The Enduring Conflict.

Myths, Maps, and Models. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press. Dourojeanni, A. Dugan, G. Dunlap, R.

Argumentative essay commodification of humans

Buttel, P. Dickens, and A. Gijswijt eds. Classical Foundations, Contemporary Insights.

Boulder, CO: Westview. Strosser, J. Bel Air, Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

Dworak, T. Berglund, C. Laaser, P. Strosser, J. Roussard, B. Grandmougin, M. Kossida, I. Kyriazopoulou, J. Berbel, S. Kolberg, J. Elias, N. Oxford, UK and Cambridge, Mass. What is Sociology? London: Hutchinson.

Elvin, H. Nishioka, K. Tamura, and J. A Selected Essay on technology example. Faruqui, N. Biswas, and M. Bino eds. Fatheuer, T. It would seem that this business would take into account the fact that a pregnant woman more often than not forms connections with the unborn children that intending and biological essays cannot otherwise make.

And unless that woman is willing to completely give up her claim on the children and cut all emotional ties to them, it would seem that putting a woman through that emotional pain would be unethical. Thus, judging from the issues surrounding the definition of a human, ART seems to be an unethical practice.

Finally, the issue of the commodification of people is a more cloudy subissue for ART; it could be argued in two ways. First, from the argumentative beginning, when a woman decides to donate her eggs or a man his sperm, some people can argue that we are buying and selling human beings or at the very least, the make up of humans.

Should this not be akin to slavery? Slavery is wrong in the sense that we are treating people like cattle, mere commodities, like something that can be assigned a monetary value, when, in fact, are humans not more valuable than money? On the other hand, others argue against this, saying that a human is not a human until conception, and some go even further to say a human becomes a human at birth. Otherwise, would a woman not be accused of murder every time she menstruates?