This is cognitivism; in its strongest form it suggests that attitudes control behaviour, and reinforcement only acts by changing attitudes. In addition, the cognitive theories have been criticized for assuming that individuals are complex information processing entities.
Nevertheless, the problem solving perspective has tended to dominate the field of consumer research. And as discussed next, decision making models that have governed consumer theory, are in fact based on the fundamentals of the cognitive principle.
These attempt to trace the psychological state of individual consumers from the point at which they become aware of the possibility of satisfying a material need by purchasing and consuming a product to their final evaluation of the consequences of having done so.
Engel et al. The choice determined by the outcome of the information process-aided decision sequence may have satisfying or dissonant outcomes: Festinger first introduced the theory of cognitive dissonance for the consumer, which influence future purchasing. This model assumes that observed consumer behaviour is preceded by intrapersonal psychological states and events attitudeintention- purchase sequence.
Moreover, the model depicts these psychological events as outputs of the processing of information, taking for granted that consumers seek and use information as part of their rational problem solving and decision making processes. Mead used the role concept in his explanation of the social and individual nature of persons.
The dramaturgical perspective on consumer behaviour views people much like actors who play different roles Goffman In the presence of others, the actor is seen to organize his activity in order to express an impression that he wishes to convey. The object of the study of role theory is to increase understanding of role enactment of individuals in social settings, so as to understand and predict behaviour.
Personality in general is understood as a concept which accounts for the apparent consistencies and regularities of behaviour over time and across a variety of situations Pervin As such, personality constructs explain those aspects of behaviour which are relatively stable across situations and, as a result, are predictive of future behaviour. While individuals might not always be uniform and predictable in their patterns of choice in different situations, it might be possible to make sense of and to forecast the general reactions of broadly- defined groups and classes of purchasers.
Few significant relationships, which would be of interest to marketing managers resulted from the research which concentrated upon the search for links between aspects of consumer choice such as brand selection and highly specific personality traits such as sociability. Thus, the success of personality research is also partly attributed to the simultaneous widespread dissatisfaction with psychoanalytical techniques of motivational research.
The first attempts to apply Fruedian and neo-Feudian e. Ernest Ditcher advocated the use of psychoanalytical techniques to uncover hidden motivations e. He strongly argued that people could not be asked why they did what they did directly, because most of the time they did not know. Perhaps the most persistent problem with motivational research was that it failed one of the cardinal rules of scientific methods - replicability. Two researchers could draw two totally different conclusions from the same interview, because motivational research was so dependent upon individual interpretation.
Thus, the widespread dissatisfaction with simple demographics and disenchantment with motivational research, coupled with the increasing accessibility of computers gave many researchers the raw material needed to measure the quantitative elements of personality traits, motivations, and psychological attributes e. As consumer researchers were increasingly influenced by psychology e.
The buying process itself is a learning experience and can lead to a change in attitudes Politz Thus, attitudes do not automatically guarantee all types of behaviour. Thus, as discussed above, social influences determine some but not all of the behavioural variations in people.
Two individuals subject to the same influences are not likely to have identical attitudes, although these attitudes will probably converge at more points than those of two strangers selected at random. Most researchers agree that an attitude has three components: affect, behaviour, and cognition. Attitude researchers have developed the concept of a hierarchy of effects to explain the relative impact of the three components.
Each hierarchy specifies that a fixed sequence of steps occur en route to an attitude. According to the theory of cognitive information processing, attitudes are formed in the order of beliefs, affect, and behaviour. Attitudes based on behavioural learning follow the beliefs, behaviour, and affect sequence. And finally, attitudes formed based on the experiential hierarchy follow the affect, behaviour, and beliefs route.
A consumer who is highly involved with a product category and who perceives a high level of product differentiation between alternatives will follow the cognitive hierarchy beliefs-affect-behaviour.
From the marketers perspective the sequence of attitude formation is pertinent from a communications point of view. The complexity of attitudes is underscored by multi- attribute attitude models, in which sets of beliefs and evaluations are identified and combined to predict an overall attitude. For example, as explained below, situational effects may be behavioural e.
According to this approach, then marketers must concentrate on assessing the characteristics of the environment, such as the physical surroundings and product placement, that influence members of that target market.
For example, pointof- purchase stimuli such as product samples are particularly useful in inducing impulse purchases. The experiential perspective stresses the gestalt, or totality, of the product or service. The principles based on the work of Gestalt psychology Koffka maintain that people derive meaning from the totality of a set of stimuli, rather than from any individual stimulus.
Here consumers may be highly involved in a decision, but may not lend themselves to the rational approach. Situational effects can also be perceptual i. For example, stress can impair information processing and problem solving abilities. In addition, time poverty can impact buying decisions. The positivist philosophical stance is characterized by an emphasis on scientific observation and testing.
The objective of this type of research is therefore, to observe empirical facts and to establish generalizable laws that can used to predict and control behaviour. The positivist perspective therefore assumes that a single reality exists; events in the world can be objectively measured; and the causes of behaviour can be identified, manipulated, and predicted. Thus, the basis of the traditional perspectives is that consumer behavior is controlled by forces which operate largely beyond the control of consumers themselves Anderson Accordingly, change is not something which consumers do for themselves, rather it is a result of something that is done to them by some internal e.
For example, the behavioural perspective suggests that consumer behaviour is largely determined, or conditioned, by external environmental stimuli Bagozzi It is assumed therefore, that consumers strive to maintain stability. As Firat et al. For instance, the behavioural perspective assumes that consumers lack a conscious self reflective ability and as a result can be totally controlled and manipulated by marketers through environmental engineering Foxall ; Hudson and Murray ; Rose et al.
Finally, the adoption of the traditional-positivist approach, the dominant paradigm in consumer research, has proved quintessential to the creation of applied consumer knowledge and accordingly the evolution of marketing practice.
The more recent non-positivist perspectives, however, aim to redress some of the criticisms of the traditional approaches, as discussed next. Moreover, these subjective maps are assumed to be intersubjective, which means that they are shared and understood by most people in society Buttle In contrast, the postmodern perspective argues that there is no fixed or pre-given essences residing inside consumers that make them behave the way they do Brown a; Firat et al.
Firat et al. Thus, the postmodern perspective places great emphasis on the creativity, autonomy, and power of consumers to define and change themselves and the world in which they live through different patterns of consumption and lifestyles Brown Literature Review store adverts, point-of-purchase displays, in-store promotions and pleasant in-store shopping environments. The socio- impulsive decision making view to consumer decision- cultural environment also exerts a major influence on the making by Schiffman and Kanuk This view consumer.
Previous studies on Impulse Dawson and Kim observed that impulse buying is buying behaviour linked to up and cross-selling strategies. In-store stimuli are Impulse buying of the shopper is influenced by number promotional techniques employed to increase impulse of factors which could be either related to the shopping buying of products. With the growth of technology such as self 2. External Stimuli are Exclusive availability of certain products, clean ambience, related to the shopping and the marketing environment.
Credit cards and its incentive for extra shopping, co- environment is the various sales and advertising activities. There are studies conducted in different shopping shopping scenario with the innovative sales promotions, environments. Dawson and Kim have predicted stimuli positively affect impulse buying behaviour that with the tremendous growth potential of online especially when the store environment is perceived as over- shopping, there is scope for consumers to get involved in stimulating excitement and stimulation.
Stimuli in the online impulse buying. Credit cards and its incentive for retail store environment are likely to affect consumer extra shopping give the opportunity for online shoppers to emotions Donovan and Rossiter, , which are other make frequent visit to online retail shops which may result variables that have been found to affect the impulse in increased impulsive buying.
Baumeister argued that high arousal and 2. The involvement with the products may also vary individuals and could set off impulse buying activity in during impulse buying when compared to general buying.
Impulse buying or purchasing with little or no advance Dave pointed out that retail stores in Indian planning is also a form of low-involvement decision settings and found that all of the in-store measures taken by making Michael et al. Young and Faber promotional mix can act as base for differentiating a store pointed out that impulse buying may originate from from others and attracting customers to it.
According to him, the majority of the is the most sold impulse product which has seen Indian population can be characterized as young, working unprecedented annual growth in the travel retail sector, class, with higher purchasing power. They seek more of the outperforming categories. Impulse products are purchased emotional value from shopping than the functional value on impulse, without any planning or search effort.
Kumar suggested that impulse buying concept is Sneath et al. In case of new also be induced because of depression of an individual and products Harmancioglu et al. Verplanken and Herabadi about the new product drive impulse buying intentions and found the similar results in his studies and stated behavior which is determined by the word-of-mouth and that impulse buying is often associated with individuals compliance with social norms. According to Jones et al.
The various autistic stimuli which are self Han et al. Hausman argued that impulse buying is a hedonic Fashion-oriented impulse is stimulated by new fashion need predominantly motivated by achievement of higher styles and brands which drive consumers to impulse buying. Efforts to satisfy the higher order needs in this affected fashion-oriented impulse buying when shopping.
Tauber hedonic behavior that is associated with feelings and suggested that characteristics of the apparel itself, such as psychosocial motivations instead of thinking and functional colour or style that are incorporated into store displays may benefits. Beatty and Ferrell suggested that impulse influence the likelihood of impulse buying. Local market conditions and various cultural impulse buying include the retail location, time of shopping, forces could also impact the way consumer; go for impulse seasons and shopping habits.
Dittmar et al. Men tend to involve in impulse buying of Hoch and Loewenstein suggested that buying may instrumental and leisure items which projects their result in more buying and it can form momentum in which independence and activity.
Women tend to buy the impulsive desires are likely to be acted upon. From a socioeconomic point of view, individuals Xu, Internal, personal-related factor like Gutierrez educational experience influences the act of impulse Culture: The individualism-collectivism dimension of buying Wood, Social factors include two types: Triandis et al.
In collectivism model individuals store employees and other customers. Social factor e. In impulse buying. Store managers might be able to reduce case where the individual consider oneself independent the negative effect of crowding by training their employees there exist greater level of freedom and liberty which may to be extra friendly at busy times. Luo research work about 2. Rook and Fisher suggested that hedonically complex behavior in which the rapidity of an anonymity might encourage impulse purchasing.
Shoppers impulsive decision process precludes thoughtful and tend to try on new things, styles and fantasize, wrapped in deliberate consideration of alternative information and the anonymity of a self-service environment. Sharma et al. The nature of online transactions self-concept. In the similar lines, the collectivist consumers causes many consumers to overspend because the remote are found to engage themselves in less impulse purchase process does not really feel like spending money Dittmar behaviour than the individualist consumers.
Online shoppers are more spontaneous than those in 2. In a study by Kim , impulse shoppers are more impulsive as compared to elder ones. Conclusion Gender: Gender is another important cause for impulse buying behavior Chien-Wen, ; Lai, ; Pentecost The competition in every industry is getting fiercer.
Some studies minor differences between shoppers are becoming declare women as more impulsive as compared to men in important for firms in their efforts to get target consumers. While some other studies find men store and online. This shows that there is a lot of scope for to be more impulsive than women as females carefully plan further research in same direction related to impulse buying. Income: People belonging to high income group having high disposable income can be assumed to be more References impulsive buyer as compared to people with low disposable income.
However no significant relationship  Bajaj, C. UK consumers in Peshawar. International Journal of Academic Generation Y male fashion consciousness. Journal of Fashion Research, 3 5 , Marketing and Management, 10 2 , pp. Available at:  Gutierrez, B. Asia Pacific Management [Accessed August 16, ]. Review, 9 6 , Impulsive buying behaviour in retail  Han, Y. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing Impulse buying behavior of apparel purchasers. Textiles Research Journal, 9 3 , Impact of cultural values and life style on impulse buying  Harmancioglu, N.
Impulse behavior: A case study of Pakistan. International Review of purchases of new products: an empirical analysis. While internal search refers to the process where consumers rely on their personal experiences and believes, external search involves wide search of information which includes addressing the media and advertising or feedbacks from other people Rose and Samouel, Once the relevant information about the product or service is obtained the next stage involves analyzing the alternatives.
Kotler and Keller consider this stage as one of the important stages as the consumer considers all the types and alternatives taking into account the factors such as size, quality and also price.
Backhaus et al suggested that purchase decision is one of the important stages as this stage refers to occurrence of transaction. Purchasing decision can further be divided into planned purchase, partially purchase or impulse purchase as stated by Kacen which will be discussed further in detail in the next chapters. Finally, post-purchase decision involves experience of the consumer about their purchase. The most noteworthy writers that serve as academic advocates of The Five Stage Model of consumer decision making include Tyagi , Kahle and Close Blackwell et al.
All of these models are analysed in great detail in Literature Review chapter of this work. Factors Impacting Consumer Buyer Behaviour It has been established that the consumer buying behaviour is the outcome of the needs and wants of the consumer and they purchase to satisfy these needs and wants.
Although it sounds simple and clear, these needs can be various depending on the personal factors such as age, psychology and personality. Also there are some other external factors which are broad and beyond the control of the consumer. These factors have been classified into different types and categories in different ways by different authors. For instance, Wiedermann et al classified them into internal and external factor.
On the other hand, Winer divided them into social, personal and psychological factors. Despite the fact that they have been classified into different groups by different authors they are similar in scope and purpose Rao, There is a wide range of factors that can affect consumer behaviour in different ways. These factors are divided by Hoyer et al. Situational factors impacting consumer behaviour may include location, environment, timing and even weather conditions Hoyer et al.
In order to benefit from situational factors major retailers attempt to construct environment and situations in stores that motivate perspective customers to make purchase decision. Range of available tools to achieve such an outcome include playing relaxing music in stores, producing refreshing smells in stores and placing bread and milk products in supermarkets towards the opposite end of stores to facilitate movement of customers throughout the store to make additional purchases etc.
The temporary nature of situational factors is rightly stressed by Batra and Kazmi Personal factors, on the other hand, include taste preferences, personal financial circumstances and related factors. The impact of personal factors on consumer decision-making is usually addressed by businesses during market segmentation, targeting and positioning practices by grouping individuals on the basis of their personal circumstances along with other criteria, and developing products and services that accommodate these circumstances in the most effective manner.
According to Hoyer et al. Targeting members of society perceived as opinion leaders usually proves effective strategy when marketing products and services due to the potential of opinion leaders to influence behaviour of other members of society as consumers. Lastly, cultural factors affecting consumer behaviour are related to cross-cultural differences amongst consumers on local and global scales.Lee carried out study to learn the five stages of consumer decision making process in the example of China. Impulse products are purchased emotional value from shopping than the functional value on impulse, without any planning or search effort. The role of store environmental Consumer Research, 7 1 , Whereas non-functional motives related to social and emotional reasons for patronage.
All of these models are analysed in great detail in Literature Review chapter of this work. Gender identity and  Kollat, D.
International Vikalpa, 28 2 , How financial attitudes and practices influence 24 10 ,
The opposing, non-positivist paradigm, envelops the interpretive and postmodern perspectives, which have emerged more recently during the period post to date. Gender identity and  Kollat, D. Research methodology moves beyond positivism to naturalism ethnography, semiotics, literary criticism, and historicism in order to achieve a broader understanding of the impact of consumption on the consumer without any particular intent to change or influence the process. Journal of Fashion Research, 3 5 , Thanks to brand personality, consumer sees brand as friend since it provides him with emotional benefits.
For instance, Wiedermann et al classified them into internal and external factor. Why do people shop?
The positivist perspective therefore assumes that a single reality exists; events in the world can be objectively measured; and the causes of behaviour can be identified, manipulated, and predicted. The importance of impulse 7 3 , Highly risk adverse consumers need to be very certain about what they are buying. Despite the fact that they have been classified into different groups by different authors they are similar in scope and purpose Rao,
While internal search refers to the process where consumers rely on their personal experiences and believes, external search involves wide search of information which includes addressing the media and advertising or feedbacks from other people Rose and Samouel, The socio- impulsive decision making view to consumer decision- cultural environment also exerts a major influence on the making by Schiffman and Kanuk
One of such studies of consumer buying behaviour has been conducted by Acebron et al This is cognitivism; in its strongest form it suggests that attitudes control behaviour, and reinforcement only acts by changing attitudes.
It spends large sums annually on packaging research. The Inter. The various autistic stimuli which are self Han et al. They also found that the image of the product has a crucial impact on the purchasing decision of the consumer and further recommended that the product image should continuously be improved in order to encourage the consumers towards purchasing.
Evolution of e-commerce in India Creating the bricks  Mai, T. As Firat et al. Post-purchase activities include the evaluation of the purchased item in use and the reduction of any anxiety which accompanies the purchase of expensive and infrequently-bought items. New  Sharma, P. Tyagi, C.
Men tend to involve in impulse buying of Hoch and Loewenstein suggested that buying may instrumental and leisure items which projects their result in more buying and it can form momentum in which independence and activity.