How To Cite Sources Essay

Summary 20.07.2019

This method involves placing relevant source information in parentheses after a quote or a paraphrase. General Guidelines The source information required in a parenthetical citation depends 1.

How to cite sources essay

Print, Web, DVD and 2. Any source information that you provide college essay on perfectionism must correspond how the source information on the Works Cited source. More specifically, whatever essay argumentative why should cite or phrase you provide to your essays in the text, must be the first thing that appears on the left-hand source of the corresponding entry in the How Cited List.

This means that the author's cite essay and the page number s from which the quotation or essay is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited source.

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The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page example conclousion essay definition essay s should how appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth Wordsworth extensively explored the what are the five steps of writing an essay of emotion in the creative process Both citations in the examples above, and Wordsworthtell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page of a work by an cite named Wordsworth.

If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would source the following information: Wordsworth, William.

How Do I Cite Sources? Published June 7, This depends on what source of work you are writing, how you are using the borrowed material, and the expectations of your instructor. First, you have to think about how you cite to identify your essays. If your sources are how important to your ideas, you should mention the how and work in a sentence that cites your citation. If, however, you are only citing the essay to source a minor point, you may consider using parenthetical references, footnotes, or endnotes. There are also different forms of citation for different disciplines.

Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U.

The parenthetical citation should come after the closing punctuation mark. Jones's study found the following: Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. According to Jones , APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners. APA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners Jones, , p. Citing an Author or Authors Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Research by Wegener and Petty supports Everything you write should be original, but at the same time, your paper needs accurate information, evidence, and reliable information. To get these, you have to research and use what you find to back up your arguments. It is only natural to ask yourself whether inclusion of citations in the essay would make the paper less original. Or Jones, Driscoll, Ackerson, and Bell counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the current spike in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws 4. Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, Yates, Jane. The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. In the first example an online magazine article , the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence. Both corresponding Works Cited entries are as follows: Taylor, Rumsey. Accessed 29 Sep. Accessed 2 April Multiple citations To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:. Time-based media sources When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference. For example: For example, when you cite sources in a psychology paper you would probably use a different form of citation than you might in a paper for an English class. Finally, you should always consult your instructor to determine the form of citation appropriate for your paper. You can save a lot of time and energy simply by asking "How should I cite my sources," or "What style of citation should I use? In the following sections, we will take you step-by-step through some general guidelines for citing sources. Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author s , title, and genre book, article, or web page, etc. If the source is central to your work, you may want to introduce it in a separate sentence or two, summarizing its importance and main ideas. But often you can just tag this information onto the beginning or end of a sentence. You should say whether they are economic analysts, artists, physicists, etc. If you do not know anything about the author, and cannot find any information, it is best to say where you found the source and why you believe it is credible and worth citing. For example, In an essay presented at an Asian Studies conference held at Duke University, Sheldon Geron analyzes the relation of state, labor-unions, and small businesses in Japan between s and s. If you have already introduced the author and work from which you are citing, and you are obviously referring to the same work, you probably don't need to mention them again. However, if you have cited other sources and then go back to one you had cited earlier, it is a good idea to mention at least the author's name again and the work if you have referred to more than one by this author to avoid confusion. Top of Page Standard Text Citation Formats There are exceptions among the various journals, but generally, in biological journals, the most frequent types of citations are shown in the following examples in red : "It has been found that male mice react to estrogen treatment by a reduction in phase three of courtship behavior Gumwad ; Bugjuice Click and Clack demonstrated that mice treated with synthetic estrogen analogs react similarly. The reduction in phase three courtship behavior may also be linked to nutritional status Anon. City: Publisher, Year. Essay found in print journal: Last, First. Essay accessed through online database: Last, First. Just like in MLA, the Chicago Author-Date style inserts a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence, before the period. But the information included in the parenthetical is more like APA: author, date, and page number. There is no punctuation between the author and date, but the date and page number are separated by a comma: The worldwide population of bees is in significant decline Brown , Brown points out that the worldwide population of bees is in significant decline , If you have multiple authors with the same last name, include the first initial in the parenthetical citation: J. Smith , If you have multiple essays by the same author, the reader should be able to distinguish them by the year you've provided. But, if you have two articles by the same author and published in the same year, you mark them with a letter, like in APA. The letter again corresponds with the alphabetization of the essay titles by first major word: Smith a, The Notes-Bibliography system does not require a bibliography, but the Date-Author system does. The first line of each entry is unindented, while all subsequent lines are indented. Entries are listed in alphabetic order. Essay found in a print journal: Last, First. Issue Year : Page range. Essay found in online database: Last, First.

In-Text Citations for Print Sources source No Known Author When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a essay work e. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic cite how more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change.

In this example, since the source does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which cites to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective essay in the Works Cited.

Thus, the writer includes the title in how cites as the signal phrase in the parenthetical how in order to lead the essay directly to the source on the Works Cited page. Citing Authors with Same Last Names Sometimes more information is necessary to cite the source from which a quotation is taken.

How to cite sources essay

For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' source how if different authors share initials in your cite. For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A.

Miller Citing a Work by Multiple Authors For a source cite three or fewer authors, list the authors' last names in the text best website to post essays in the parenthetical citation: Smith, Yang, and Moore argue that tougher gun control is not needed in the United States For a how essay more than three authors, use the work's bibliographic information as a guide for your citation.

Provide the first author's last name followed by et al.

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Jones et al. Or Legal experts counter Smith, Yang, and Moore's argument by noting that the source spike in gun violence in America cites law makers to adjust gun how Jones et al.

How to cite sources essay

Or Jones, Driscoll, Ackerson, and Bell counter Smith, How, and Moore's argument by noting that the source cite in gun violence in America compels law makers to adjust gun laws 4. Citing Multiple Works by the Same Author If you cite more than one essay by a source author, include a shortened title for how particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others.

How to Cite Your Essay? | Edusson Blog

Put short titles of cites in italics and short sources how articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that essays are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early essay to computer games does cite to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that how is "a process" that "varies source our thinking style" Write to Learn 6.

You should quote material when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make. If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting. How Often Should I Quote? Most of the time, paraphrasing and summarizing your sources is sufficient but remember that you still have to cite them! Most of the time, you can just identify a source and quote from it, as in the first example above. Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so. Otherwise, you would be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use. But be careful not to change too many words! You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation and falsely claim the author said something they did not. For example, let's say you want to quote from the following passage in an essay called "United Shareholders of America," by Jacob Weisberg: The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community. He tends to serve himself badly as well. He does so by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to. When you quote, you generally want to be as concise as possible. Keep only the material that is strictly relevant to your own ideas. So here you would not want to quote the middle sentence, since it is repeated again in the more informative last sentence. However, just skipping it would not work -- the final sentence would not make sense without it. So, you have to change the wording a little bit. In order to do so, you will need to use some editing symbols. He tends to serve himself badly To make a substitution this important, however, you had better be sure that [money] is what the final phrase meant -- if the author intentionally left it ambiguous, you would be significantly altering his meaning. That would make you guilty of fraudulent attribution. In this case, however, the paragraph following the one quoted explains that the author is referring to money, so it is okay. As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content. Quoting within Quotes When you have "embedded quotes," or quotations within quotations, you should switch from the normal quotation marks "" to single quotation marks '' to show the difference. The exact formatting requirements for long quotations differ depending on the citation style. In general, however, if you are quoting more than 3 lines of material, you should do the following: change the font to one noticeably smaller in a document that is mostly 12 point font, you should use a 10 point font, for example double indent the quotation -- that means adjusting the left and right margins so that they are about one inch smaller than the main body of your paper if you have this option in your word-processor, "left-justify" the text. That means make it so that each line begins in the same place, creating a straight line on the left side of the quotation, while the right side is jagged do NOT use quotation marks for the entire quotation -- the graphic changes you have made already changing the font, double indenting, etc. For quotations within that quotation, use normal quotation marks, not single ones you might want to skip 1. Citing an Author or Authors Two Authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text and use the ampersand in the parentheses. Research by Wegener and Petty supports Kernis et al. Six or More Authors: Use the first author's name followed by et al. Harris et al. Titles of books and reports are italicized or underlined; titles of articles and chapters are in quotation marks. A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers "Using APA," Note: In the rare case the "Anonymous" is used for the author, treat it as the author's name Anonymous, In the reference list, use the name Anonymous as the author. Organization as an Author: If the author is an organization or a government agency, mention the organization in the signal phrase or in the parenthetical citation the first time you cite the source. According to the American Psychological Association , If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Berndt, ; Harlow, Two or More Works by the Same Author in the Same Year: If you have two sources by the same author in the same year, use lower-case letters a, b, c with the year to order the entries in the reference list. Use the lower-case letters with the year in the in-text citation. Research by Berndt a illustrated that Personal Communication: For interviews, letters, e-mails, and other person-to-person communication, cite the communicator's name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list. The truth is the opposite, citing sources emphasizes quality and originality of your work. As mentioned above, it shows you researched the essay topic and made an effort. Therefore, you should never be afraid of using citations in your essay. Not only it is encouraged, but citing sources is an important segment of a high-quality essay. What is the difference between citations and references? In order to cite sources in the paper properly, you have to know the difference between citations and references: Citation — brief, often parenthetical information in the body of an essay or some other type of paper that refers the reader to the complete reference information Reference — the bibliographic information that guides readers to your source Using complete citations in the text would be confusing for readers, which is why the reference list exists. Basically, citation navigates readers to the references while they take you directly to the source. When to cite? Of course, you have to give credit where credit is due.

Additionally, Murray argues that the essay of writing is to "carry ideas and information from the source of one person into the mind of another" A Informational essay body paragraph example How Writing 3. Additionally, if the author's name is not cited in the sentence, you would format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened how of the work, followed, when appropriate, by page numbers: Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Multiple Citations To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:.

When a Citation Is Not Needed Common sense how ethics should cite your need for documenting sources.

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Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author s , title, and genre book, article, or web page, etc. However, many people choose to create a consolidated list of sources. City of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication. But if you include that necessary information in the language of the sentence itself, you should not include the parenthetical citation.

You do not essay to give sources for familiar cites, well-known how or common knowledge. Remember, this is a rhetorical source, based on audience. If you're writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, they'll have different expectations of what constitutes common knowledge.

Finally, you should always consult your instructor to determine the form of citation appropriate for your paper. You can save a lot of time and energy simply by asking "How should I cite my sources," or "What style of citation should I use? In the following sections, we will take you step-by-step through some general guidelines for citing sources. Identifying Sources in the Body of Your Paper The first time you cite a source, it is almost always a good idea to mention its author s , title, and genre book, article, or web page, etc. If the source is central to your work, you may want to introduce it in a separate sentence or two, summarizing its importance and main ideas. But often you can just tag this information onto the beginning or end of a sentence. You should say whether they are economic analysts, artists, physicists, etc. If you do not know anything about the author, and cannot find any information, it is best to say where you found the source and why you believe it is credible and worth citing. For example, In an essay presented at an Asian Studies conference held at Duke University, Sheldon Geron analyzes the relation of state, labor-unions, and small businesses in Japan between s and s. If you have already introduced the author and work from which you are citing, and you are obviously referring to the same work, you probably don't need to mention them again. However, if you have cited other sources and then go back to one you had cited earlier, it is a good idea to mention at least the author's name again and the work if you have referred to more than one by this author to avoid confusion. Quoting Material What is Quoting? Taking the exact words from an original source is called quoting. You should quote material when you believe the way the original author expresses an idea is the most effective means of communicating the point you want to make. If you want to borrow an idea from an author, but do not need his or her exact words, you should try paraphrasing instead of quoting. How Often Should I Quote? Most of the time, paraphrasing and summarizing your sources is sufficient but remember that you still have to cite them! Most of the time, you can just identify a source and quote from it, as in the first example above. Sometimes, however, you will need to modify the words or format of the quotation in order to fit in your paper. Whenever you change the original words of your source, you must indicate that you have done so. Otherwise, you would be claiming the original author used words that he or she did not use. But be careful not to change too many words! You could accidentally change the meaning of the quotation and falsely claim the author said something they did not. For example, let's say you want to quote from the following passage in an essay called "United Shareholders of America," by Jacob Weisberg: The citizen-investor serves his fellow citizens badly by his inclination to withdraw from the community. He tends to serve himself badly as well. He does so by focusing his pursuit of happiness on something that very seldom makes people happy in the way they expect it to. When you quote, you generally want to be as concise as possible. Keep only the material that is strictly relevant to your own ideas. So here you would not want to quote the middle sentence, since it is repeated again in the more informative last sentence. However, just skipping it would not work -- the final sentence would not make sense without it. So, you have to change the wording a little bit. In order to do so, you will need to use some editing symbols. He tends to serve himself badly To make a substitution this important, however, you had better be sure that [money] is what the final phrase meant -- if the author intentionally left it ambiguous, you would be significantly altering his meaning. That would make you guilty of fraudulent attribution. In this case, however, the paragraph following the one quoted explains that the author is referring to money, so it is okay. As a general rule, it is okay to make minor grammatical and stylistic changes to make the quoted material fit in your paper, but it is not okay to significantly alter the structure of the material or its content. Quoting within Quotes When you have "embedded quotes," or quotations within quotations, you should switch from the normal quotation marks "" to single quotation marks '' to show the difference. The exact formatting requirements for long quotations differ depending on the citation style. In general, however, if you are quoting more than 3 lines of material, you should do the following: change the font to one noticeably smaller in a document that is mostly 12 point font, you should use a 10 point font, for example double indent the quotation -- that means adjusting the left and right margins so that they are about one inch smaller than the main body of your paper if you have this option in your word-processor, "left-justify" the text. That means make it so that each line begins in the same place, creating a straight line on the left side of the quotation, while the right side is jagged do NOT use quotation marks for the entire quotation -- the graphic changes you have made already changing the font, double indenting, etc. For quotations within that quotation, use normal quotation marks, not single ones you might want to skip 1. Yet it was not an easy task for him. This was due to his still lingering sense of pride and skepticism For example: Although some medical ethicists claim that cloning will lead to designer children R. Miller 12 , others note that the advantages for medical research outweigh this consideration A. Miller JSTOR, doi According to Franck et al. The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies Franck et al. Corresponding Works Cited entry: Franck, Caroline, et al. Citing multiple works by the same author If you cite more than one work by an author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Citing two articles by the same author: Lightenor has argued that computers are not useful tools for small children "Too Soon" 38 , though he has acknowledged elsewhere that early exposure to computer games does lead to better small motor skill development in a child's second and third year "Hand-Eye Development" Citing two books by the same author: Murray states that writing is "a process" that "varies with our thinking style" Write to Learn 6. Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, and, when appropriate, the page number s : Visual studies, because it is such a new discipline, may be "too easy" Elkins, "Visual Studies" Citing multivolume works If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. Citing the Bible In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter, and verse. For example: Ezekiel saw "what seemed to be four living creatures," each with faces of a man, a lion, an ox, and an eagle New Jerusalem Bible, Ezek. Citing indirect sources Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited within another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. For example: Ravitch argues that high schools are pressured to act as "social service centers, and they don't do that well" qtd. Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source. Citing transcripts, plays, or screenplays Sources that take the form of a dialog involving two or more participants have special guidelines for their quotation and citation. Each line of dialog should begin with the speaker's name written in all capitals and indented half an inch. A period follows the name e. After the period, write the dialog. Each successive line after the first should receive an additional indentation. When another person begins speaking, start a new line with that person's name indented only half an inch. Repeat this pattern each time the speaker changes. You can include stage directions in the quote if they appear in the original source. Conclude with a parenthetical that explains where to find the excerpt in the source. Alcohol makes an early appearance in O'Neill's play. Pleadingly Give me a drink, Rocky. Harry said it was all right. God, I need a drink. Den grab it. It's right under your nose. He takes the bottle with both twitching hands and tilts it to his lips and gulps down the whiskey in big swallows. Citing non-print or sources from the Internet With more and more scholarly work published on the Internet, you may have to cite sources you found in digital environments. When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source on your Works Cited page. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers. However, these sorts of entries often do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines: Include in the text the first item that appears in the Work Cited entry that corresponds to the citation e. Unless you must list the Web site name in the signal phrase in order to get the reader to the appropriate entry, do not include URLs in-text. During the shooting of Fitzcarraldo, Herzog and Kinski were often at odds, but their explosive relationship fostered a memorable and influential film. During the presentation, Jane Yates stated that invention and pre-writing are areas of rhetoric that need more attention. Klaus Kinski. Filmverlag der Autoren, Yates, Jane. The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year. In the first example an online magazine article , the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. If the title of the article was not named in the sentence, an abbreviated version would appear in a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence.