Examining the causes of climate change and the greenhouse effect Evidence of global warming Thermometer readings Ongoing temperature recordings using thermometers have shown a clear warming of the Earth's temperature over the past few decades. By using this data, scientists have seen an average combined land and ocean surface temperature increase of 0.
In the northern hemisphere, the period between and was the warmest year period of the last 1, years. The degree to which the climate warms in the future will depend on natural climate variability and the level of greenhouse gas emissions.
If greenhouse gas emissions continue then average global temperatures will rise. However, some regions such as the Arctic will warm faster than others. Glacier retreat A view of Muir glacier in Over the past 50 to years, photographic evidence has shown that the world's glaciers have been melting, which has caused them to retreat. The increase in global temperatures is causing glaciers to disappear and is increasing the melting of sea ice in the Arctic.
Ice cores Scientists often use ice cores to detect changes in temperatures. When snow falls it traps air into the ice. How did Katrina form? Katrina was created from the interaction of the remains of a tropical depression SE of the Bahamas with a storm wave.
The storm drifted towards Florida and intensified as it passed over the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Katrina intensified before making landfall in Florida and was a Hurricane 3 upon reaching the Mississippi Delta. The tsunami was the direct consequence of a 9.
This rupture triggered massive waves that reached an altitude of up to 30m. The tsunami resulted in , deaths, with , fatalities in Indonesia alone. Created by Cantus Short term responses included search and rescue efforts in the local communities, while internationally, people sent donations to help those in need.
An early warning system has been developed to predict future tsunamis in the Indian Ocean. Coastal problems and opportunities: Wadden Sea Islands The Wadden Sea provides a large diversity of fish species and other seafood animals, making fishery an important industry for the local communities. Besides, tourism is well established in the area, with around , visitors annually on the Dutch island of Texel alone.
Furthermore, the continuous eastward shift of the islands has eroded their westmost regions, endangering settlements such as West-Terschelling, which may submerge in future. The reef grows in shallow areas not more than 60 m deep in the Coral sea, off the Australian coast, east of Cairns. It grows in clear water that is free of sediment so sunlight can pass through. Threats: The Great Barrier reef is threatened by global warming, which increases coral bleaching.
Besides, declining water quality due to agricultural run-off from the rivers of North-Eastern Australia and oil from ships in discarded in the Coral Sea pollutes the ecosystem. Also, overfishing destroys food chains and disbalances the symbiotic relationships. Furthermore, tourists may destroy parts of the reef when they go diving or reef-walking.
Management strategies: The Australian government has made the Great Barrier reef a protected area by declaring it a marine park. The Marine Park Authority gives out permits for fishing, diving and more and has boats patrol the area to prevent illegal activity. Tourists are educated about how their trip affects the reef and they are not allowed in certain sensitive areas. Pollution in the North Sea The North Sea is polluted by oil spillages from tankers in the Thames estuary washing out their tanks.
As a result, oil clogs up the gills of fish, casuing them to die. Spillages also pollute the beaches along the British coast eg. Besides pollution occurs through the disposal of untreated sewage from large urban areas such as Rotterdam, possibly possessing a human health risk along the Dutch coast.
Also, pollutants from industrial waste in the Rhine river may be washed into the sea. It has been formed along the Holderness coast under the influence of prevailing winds from the North which result in wave refraction.
Subsequently, longshore drift transports the coastal sediments, which deposit in the sheltered mouth of the Humber estuary. Westerly onshore winds picked up dry sand from the wide beach at the estuary of the Dovey Dyfi river. Obstructions on the beach caused a sheltered area. Maram grass colonised dunes and trapped further sand.
Also, fishing is very prominent, as the distributaries are colonised by shrimps. However, the Ganges Delta is threatened by floods, especially from heavy rainfall during the monsoon season and icewater runoff from the slopes of the Himalaya. It is estimated that 40 million people rely on water from the 2, km long stream for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Many dams and canals have been built to control this extreme demand; therefore, the Colorado river is one of the most controlled rivers in the world.
In , a treaty was introduced to guarantee 1. Environmental problems: Alluvium becomes trapped behind dams eg. Hoover Dam , damaging the delta and wetland ecosystem at the mouth of the Colorado river Salinity has increased in the lower basin, altering the ecosystem Reduction in the population of fish, shrimps and sea mammals Resource management strategies: Reducing leakage from broken pipes Use of grey water in domestic homes Domestic conservation Improving irrigation using drip irrigation or growing crops with a lower demand for water Extraction water from ground water supplies Desalinisation of water from the Pacific ocean Information from: Greenfieldgeography China: Three Gorges Dam The Three Gorges Dam is located near Yichang on the Yangtse River in China.
It is approximately m high and 2. The dam has protected 10 million people from flooding and its 32 generators provide energy for 60 million people each generagtor produces as much energy as a small nuclear powerplant , enabling China to reduce its dependency on coal.
It also allows shipping above the Three Gorges and has 6-folded the water traffic capacity. Also, the dam has created many jobs. Model of the Three Gorges Dam However, the dam meant that 1 million people had to be moved to accomodate the reservoir and power stations.
The Three Gorges Dam also interferes with aquatic life, being a major threat to the White Flag Dolphin, which is already at risk from extinction. Furthermore, the large masses of silt transported by the Yangtse deposit behind the dam, which reduces the storage capacity of the reservoir. Besides, the dam lies on a fault line and could be badly affected by an earthquake.
Precipitation at the northern rim of the Alps exceeded mm over four days. This, along with an already high soil moisture from the wet spring weather, gave rise to severe flood discharges in the Danube and Elbe rivers. Many dykes failed due to the pressure from the water masses, worsening the situation. Flash flooding was recorded in Warsaw as a result of a heavy thunderstorm.
Effects: 25 fatalities have been recorded due to the floods. Thousands of people were evacuated in Germany, the Czech Republic and Austria. River traffic was blocked for several weeks and many railway lines were closed due to flood damage and landslides. Members of the Red Cross built shelter camps for displaced residents.
Military soldiers established sand bag walls to control the Elbe and Danube rivers and protect buildings in areas such as Dresden and Passau. In some rural regions, levees were destroyed to allow the water to escape onto flood plains and prevent uncontrolled damage downstream. The governments of Germany, Austria and the Czech Republik are investigating into longterm measures to reduce the aftermath of future floods.Villagers walk to the neighbouring towns of Dera and How to report to cqc promotes study rights, offering food, shelter and case. Besides, Germany is perceived as a geography that protects Bofa to access a local market and shops. Some people may have different opinions on whether they think college is worth the effort that has to.
Members of the Red Cross built shelter camps for displaced residents. Also, ash covered large plots of agricultural land, damaging the crops. Government-funded pensions may have to shrink to cover everybody, leaving many people with less to spend and some in poverty. Glacier retreat A view of Muir glacier in Over the past 50 to years, photographic evidence has shown that the world's glaciers have been melting, which has caused them to retreat. If greenhouse gas emissions continue then average global temperatures will rise.
The desert environment is also threatened by tourist attractions such as dune bashing. Longterm responses included reparation of three-quaters of the damaged buildings. It left 19 million cubic metres of debris in Port-au-Prince and many services were badly disrupted or destroyed.
Suggestions include reducing construction activities on flood plains and creating spillways to divert part of the flow in case of high discharge. Lack of stable goverment and medical infrastructure limited search and rescue efforts. Created by Cantus Short term responses included search and rescue efforts in the local communities, while internationally, people sent donations to help those in need. Effects: 25 fatalities have been recorded due to the floods.
Besides, Germany is perceived as a country that protects and promotes human rights, offering food, shelter and language courses to refugees. Woodly School in North Yorkshire which shut in due to a lack of students. Environmental problems: Alluvium becomes trapped behind dams eg. Besides, tourism is well established in the area, with around , visitors annually on the Dutch island of Texel alone. Benefits: Elderly people can share skills and knowledge to train the younger generation Elderly people promote the development of grey economies such as health care, specialised facilities, other facilities desired by elderly, etc.
The governments of Germany, Austria and the Czech Republik are investigating into longterm measures to reduce the aftermath of future floods. Obstructions on the beach caused a sheltered area. Flash flooding was recorded in Warsaw as a result of a heavy thunderstorm. The dam has protected 10 million people from flooding and its 32 generators provide energy for 60 million people each generagtor produces as much energy as a small nuclear powerplant , enabling China to reduce its dependency on coal.
These services may then have to close eg. Xerophilious grass has a small surface area to reduce water loss.