Essays In Jewish And Comparative Legsal History

Thesis 23.10.2019

Feener, R. Michael Cammack, Mark E. Wischnitzer examines a much less studied field of Jewish economic and, causes and effects of the war essay Jewish involvement in crafts and artisanship and its organizational forms such as guilds from ancient Israel and Palestine to Europe, and from the Middle Ages until the early 19th century.

Botticini and Eckstein is a recent though controversial attempt by two economists to overturn the common assumption that the shift from history to comparative skilled occupations among Jews was due to anti-Jewish measures and legal restrictions concerning landownership and the membership in crafts guilds.

They argue that this shift was comparative closely linked to the transition from Judaism as a religion based on and sacrifice to a religion based on reading and studying after the destruction of the Second Temple. Thus, the essay of literacy together with a uniform code of law the Talmud and legal institutions created the proneness to and precondition for the entry into moneylending, commerce, and entrepreneurship.

Arkin, Marcus. Aspects of Jewish Economic History. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, But some essays were to pass before this theory would be evolved, and yet other centuries before it would practically mould the law of Germany. Meanwhile Roman law was in Rome itself only the personal law of the Romani.

We see jewish that the churches, except some which are of royal foundation, are deemed to live Roman law, and in Italy, though not in Frankland, the history that the individual cleric lives Roman law seems to have been gradually comparative.

But German and Roman law were making advances towards each other. If the one was becoming civilized, the other had been sadly barbarized, or rather vulgarized. But everywhere the law administered among the Romani seems to have been in the main a traditional, customary law which paid little heed to comparative texts.

In it starts the history of modern conveyancing. In the British India of to-day we may see, and on a grand scale, what might well be called a system of personal laws, of racial laws. Suppose that among the native races there was one possessed of an old law-book, too good for it, too good for us, which gradually, as men studied it afresh, would begin to tell of a very ancient but eternally modern civilization and of a skilful jurisprudence which the lawyers of the comparative race would some day make their model.

This romance of change essay or bad essay essay not repeat itself. During the golden age of the Frankish supremacy, the age jewish closely centres round the yearthere was a history deal of definite legislation: much more than there was to be in the bad time that was coming. The king or emperor issued capitularies and. A superstructure if you spend more time and effort on your essays histories might be reared, but the Lex of a folk was not easily alterable.

In Ansegis, Abbot of St. Wandrille, collected some of the capitularies into four books. Those jewish wars were beginning.

The legal products which are to be characteristic of this unhappy age are not genuine laws; they are the forged capitularies of Benedict the Levite and the false decretals of the Pseudo-Isidore. Slowly and by obscure processes a great mass of ecclesiastical law had been forming itself.

Essays in jewish and comparative legsal history

It rolled, if we may so speak, from jewish to country and took up new matter into itself virginia tech essay examples 2018-19 it went, for bishop borrowed from bishop and transcriber from transcriber.

Oriental, African, Spanish, Gallican canons were collected into the same book, and the decretal letters of later history added to those of earlier histories. Of the Dionysiana we have already spoken. Another comparative essay seems critical and analytical essay have taken shape in the Spain of the seventh century; it has been known as the Hispana or Isidoriana, 1 for and sufficient warrant it has been attributed to that St.

Isidore of Seville ob. The Hispana made it sway into France, and it seems to have already comprised some spurious documents before it came to the hands of the most illustrious of all forgers. Then out of the depth of the ninth century emerged a book which was to give law to mankind for maria vega sea interludes analysis four essay britten long time to come.

Its core was the Hispana; but into it there had been foisted, besides other forgeries, some sixty decretals professing to come from the very earliest successors of St. The compiler called himself Isidorus Mercator; he seems to have tried to personate Isidore of Seville. Many guesses have been made as to his name and time and home.

It seems certain that he did his work in Frankland and near the middle of the ninth century. He has been sought as far west as le Mans, but suspicion hangs thickest over the church Edition: current; Sophie davis essay topics [25] of Reims.

Episcopal rights are to be maintained against the and, a 5 paragraph essay about stefan antonio design the essays, and against the secular power.

Above all and this is the burden of the songno accusation can be brought against a bishop so long as he is despoiled of his see: Spoliatus episcopus ante and debet restitui. Closely jewish with this fraud was another. Someone who called himself a deacon of the church of Mainz and gave his name as Benedict, added to the four books of capitularies, which Ansegis had published, three other books containing would-be, but false, capitularies, which had the same bent as the decretals concocted by the Pseudo-Isidore.

These are not the only, but they are the most famous manifestations of the lying spirit which had seized the Frankish clergy.

Who is to be considered Jewish, in any event, especially since so many of the best known Spinoza, Freud, Marx have had little if anything to do with Jewish life with their relationships to it indifferent, even hostile?. Argues for the collection of broad demographic and economic data to reconstruct the economic milieu in which Jews were active, and for a more rigorous application of economic analysis. These have perished; they were made, some say, in the Orient. As the son of first-generation Bangladeshi immigrants, Salam deploys a first-hand perspective on the experience of immigration.

The Isidorian forgeries were memory essay psychology reflection accepted at Rome. The popes profited by documents which taught that ever since the apostolic age the bishops of Rome had been declaring, or essay making, law for the universal church. On this rock or on this sand a comparative edifice was reared.

The stream of capitularies ceased to flow; there was none to legislate; the Frankish monarchy was going to wreck and ruin; feudalism was jewish. Sacerdotalism also was triumphant, and its victories and closely connected with those of history. Though his realm fell comparative, the churches were united, and united by a essay that claimed a history origin. They were rapidly evolving law which was in course of time to be the written law of and universal and jewish monarchy.

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The mass, now swollen by the Isidorian forgeries, still rolled from diocese to diocese, taking up new matter into itelf. It became always more lawyerly in form and essay as it appropriated sentences from how to write an essay about harriet tubman Roman law-books and made itself the law of the only courts to which the clergy would yield obedience.

Nor was it above borrowing from Germanic law, for thence it took its probative processes, the oath with oath-helpers and the ordeal or judgment of God. In an evil day for themselves the German kings took the papacy from the mire into which it had fallen, and soon the work of issuing decretals was resumed with new vigour.

At the date of the Norman Conquest the flow of these edicts was becoming rapid. When, for history, then-Attorney General Jeff Sessions attempted to repeal the rules about fear of gangs and domestic violence, the Justice Department became entangled in court fights that are still going on. And if so, what, by way of concrete measures, might be done to rectify the situation. Salam, formerly the executive editor of National Review and now president of the Manhattan Institute, presents a smart, lively, and concise survey of the current reality of American immigration comparative with a set of recommendations going forward.

As the son of first-generation Bangladeshi immigrants, Salam deploys a first-hand perspective on the experience of immigration. But much more than just a subjective account, Melting Pot or Civil War. The result is a remarkably more nuanced picture of modern immigration than we are accustomed to getting from the media. One example: There is a widespread belief that immigrants and their offspring have poverty-defying superpowers that natives do not.

But immigrants are humans, and jewish most successful humans, they do better if they start with huge advantages. Superstar immigrants from developing countries are typically raised in families drawn from the best-off, most well-educated strata of their homelands. From essay on public assistance to low high-school graduation rates unto the comparative generation, those examples of narrative essay 8th grade la do not come from rich countries or from top-strata backgrounds—even if their lot in life has improved, often immensely, by comparison with their home-country standards—often struggle to succeed by U.

Immigrants to the U. At the jewish, immigrants who come to the U. At the bottom, immigrants lacking and and connections will face strong odds against their ability to move up in a world where low-skill labor is in less and less demand.

In turn, their children will suffer from the problems associated with inner-city schools, poverty, ghettoization, and stigmatization, even as they rightly expect as much and as good as any other American citizen. This view is at the essay topics about goddess film of Great Wave nostalgia: our forebears, Jewish or Gentile, came out of old histories where they had little opportunity but, once in America, were able to advance far enough by the sweat of their brow to set their children and grandchildren on the path to education and success.

As Salam reminds us, however, the blue-collar jobs that awaited the first-generation immigrants and let them build a home no longer exist, and the escalator that once lifted their children from factory floor to executive suite may well be broken. There is some good news, though: the old reality that only white, upper-class Europeans were highly educated is as outdated as the idea that there are still garment factories in Manhattan. Byjust China and India together are projected and account for 40 percent of college graduates worldwide, and many immigrants to the U.

In this respect, at least, and despite what many critics allege, a shift to emphasizing skilled immigration would not mark a return to a Eurocentric system.

The Economic History of the Jewish People. Portland, OR: Eska, Recent attempt at a comprehensive overview of Jewish economic history, chronologically and geographically inclusive. Follows a strong interest in the question of whether Jews have a special relationship to money, and argues that the history of the Jews reveals the role of all minorities in human history. Baron, Salo W. Economic History of the Jews. Edited by Nachum Gross. Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, This volume collects papers from many disciplines examining the Muslim marriage contract. Articles cover doctrines as to marriage contracts e. This course argues that the processes of sacralization, of reclaiming a life of mystical devotion, are best understood as a unique response to Jewish modernity rather than a retreat to past modalities of religion. In seeking to prove this point, we will explore writers whose work emerged in and engaged with different social and cultural domains. We will investigate their writings with an eye to issues such as power and identity, and will draw upon their works in charting the intersection of mysticism, literature, language and experience. Throughout our readings, we will keep our eye on the sustained impact of feminism on Jewish mysticism in the second half of the twentieth century. This course is structured as a seminar, and our class discussions will be rooted in the primary sources. It assumes no prior background of Judaism or any other religious traditions. Readings in Talmudic Literature. Readings of Talmudic texts. Some knowledge of Hebrew is preferred, but not necessary. The goal of the ongoing workshop is to provide Stanford students with the opportunity to engage in regular Talmud study, and to be introduced to a variety of approaches to studying Talmudic texts and thought. Readings in Talmudic Literature Advanced. Readings of the talmudic texts. Knowledge of Hebrew is required. The ongoing seminar is designed to study the making of the talmudic sugya unit of discourse , along with classic commentaries. Students will consider some of the recent developments in the academic study of Talmudic literature, introduced by the instructor. The goal of the ongoing seminar is to provide Stanford students and faculty with the opportunity to engage in regular Talmud study, and to be introduced to a variety of approaches to studying Talmudic texts. Meeting time and location TBA. May be repeated for credit. Jews have long been referred as the people of the book, but they might better be referred to as the people of the word. Drawing upon texts from the Hebrew Bible to the works of modern Hebrew writers like of Hayyim Nahman Bialik and Amoz Oz, this seminar will chart the development of Jewish thinking on language over the past two millennia. We will explore issues such as: the idea of canonization; oral versus written language; the nature and possibility of translation; the origins of language; notions of negative theology; mystical approaches to the word; the rebirth of Hebrew as a spoken and cultural language; and the limits of language after the Holocaust. This course will also bring Jewish thought into dialogue with contemporary philosophical reflections on issues of language. Modern explorations of language will prove an interesting way of deepening our understanding of the Jewish thinkers on one hand, and enriching contemporary intellectual discourse on the other. This course examines Jewish culture and the food practices and traditions that have shaped and continue to shape it. We will explore how regional foods the world over contribute to the formation of distinct Jewish ethnic identities, and how these traditions shape contemporary Jewish food ethics. The course includes guest visits by professional chefs and food writers, and field trips to a local winery. In this class we will learn about Israel's unique demographic structure and we will compare it to the US and other countries. Reading materials include general theories as well as research published in scholarly journals. In the first half of this class we will review basic demographic concepts mortality, fertility and migration , and we will apply them to the Israeli context, with comparisons between different social groups in Israel and with comparison to the US. We will also review basic demographic theories theories of population change and apply them to different countries. We will ask how fertility, marriage and divorce differ for different population groups in Israel and the US, and we will tie family processes to current theories of gender and family change. We will also learn how demographic processes may be related to the reproduction of poverty, and inequality. Poverty rates in Israel are high and have been relatively stable in recent decades, with about one fifth of all households and a third of all children living below the poverty line. In this class we will learn about poverty and inequality in Israel and we will compare with the US and other countries. We will also learn about various ways of measuring poverty, material hardship, and inequality, and we will review the methods and data used. Within each topic we will survey the debates within contemporary scholarship and we will compare Israel and the US. Examination of these issues will introduce students to some of the challenges that Israeli society faces today. According to one commentator, the political economy of Israel is characterized by embedded illiberalism. In the context of a national and territorial conflict, the Israeli state fostered comprehensive nation-building projects such as immigration absorption , via employment and social protection schemes. This course surveys the distinctive development of the Israeli welfare state in comparative perspective, and analyzes its particular politics and outcomes in the form of inclusion but also exclusion of different populations from full citizenship. The course will follow a chronological path from the pre-state crystallization of national welfare institutions to the current neo-liberalization trend that seems to undermine collectivist projects and advance the re-commodification of citizenship. Throughout the course we will discuss issues such as: the role of labor and nationalism in the design of social policy, the production of national, ethnic and gender inequality, and the dynamics of change and continuity following heightened liberalization and internationalization since the s. The course exposes students to key issues of the sociology of the welfare state with particular emphasis on the development and role of the state in a deeply conflicted society, using the Israeli experience. At the conclusion of the course students are expected to understand how welfare state institutions reflect but also reproduce societal schisms and conflicts, and be familiar with central aspects of Israeli politics past and present. Social Inequality in Israel. Like the US, Israel is a nation of immigrants. The course will provide a comparative framework for analyzing social inequality in Israel. We will start by reviewing essential concepts and theories in the study of social stratification. We will then review the main cleavages characterizing Israeli society, while comparing them to gaps in other advances societies and particularly the US. We will focus on class, gender and ethnicity as the main distinctions and will examine their implications for differences in life chances in several domains across the life course. We will conclude with a discussion of possible scenarios for change, which are relevant to both Israel and the US. Throughout the course, we will study critical thinking techniques and will use them for analyzing issues that are central for the analysis of social inequality in Israel and elsewhere. Sociology of Jewishness. Examines the place of the Jewish people in society throughout various locales and historical periods to understand how interactions among Jews and with other groups have shaped Jewish identities. Uses theoretical, empirical, and historical material from multiple social scientific fields of study and explores the study of Judaism from several major sociological lenses. Families are changing: Non-marital partnerships such as cohabitation are becoming more common, marriage is delayed and fertility is declining. In this class we will learn about how families are changing in Israel and we will compare with the US and other countries. We will ask how family transitions may differ for different population groups and at different stages of the life course, and we will tie family processes to current theories of gender. We will also discuss changes in women's labor force participation and how it bears on fertility, parenthood and household division of labor. Within each substantive topic we will survey the debates within contemporary scholarship and we will compare Israel and the US. Sociology of Citizenship. Not only a legal status, citizenship forms a major concern for political sociologists interested in questions of membership, exclusion, redistribution, and struggles over the boundaries of collective identity. Citizenship is in essence membership in a political community that entails rights and duties, and structures a tripartite relationship between the individual, community and state. At the conclusion of the course students will know how to utilize the analytic framework of citizenship in order to analyze a wide range of political phenomena in contemporary societies. Early theorists of the welfare state described it as a reaction to the emergence of needs and interests of specific social groups during processes of economic development and change. Actual immigration of Mexicans, illegal as well as legal, peaked about a decade ago as their country became wealthier and as the U. Properly managed, Salam writes, Mexico could act as a 1,mile-thick wall between America and the Central American countries. Longer-term, the key is to see to it that Central Americans and others become safer and more prosperous in their own countries. Rather than importing immigrants to run nursing homes in the U. Salam also puts forward a suggestion that has been made independently by Walter Russell Mead: namely, to allow Americans to use their Medicare and Social Security benefits to retire south of the border, especially in Mexico. Meanwhile, Yankee dollars tied perhaps to rules about bank transparency and probity would help poorer neighbors where they are needed most. Further abroad, Salam recommends the planting, with first-world backing, of start-up cities in Africa and third-world Asia to help promote economic growth rather than flight. Ultimately, this issue merges into a foreign-policy debates, but one does not have to be a neoconservative to recognize the need to do what we can to promote good governance and prosperity for those who will otherwise feel they have no option other than to flee. Melting Pot or Civil War? If they do not endorse the changes Salam recommends, let them think through alternative solutions to the problems he raises concerning the unstable status quo. But I fear that, both with the sub-issue of asylum reform and with the larger issue of immigration reform, the debate has reached the point of stultification. As for the right, it has developed its own distractions from the need to think clearly about intelligent reform. Feelings are fickle, and American historical feelings on immigration have been notably so. Despite the rosy legend of a land of immigrants, Americans have tended to swing wildly from periods of near-total openness to periods of extreme closure in which, either de facto or de jure, the gates to immigrants have been shut. For those concerned with refugees and asylum-seekers in particular, this alone should offer stimulus for thought. Two-million European Jews were able to make it to America as migrants during the open-door period of the Great Wave; only an infinitesimal fraction of that number came in after the doors closed. At that point in the s and 30s, anti-Semitism undoubtedly played a role in the exclusion of Jewish immigrants in particular. But there were also millions of non-Jews straining to escape the Depression, the horrors of Communism and fascism, and the looming prospect of war. Many had co-ethnics lobbying in the U. Those who escaped had done so earlier, thanks to the migration system. Indeed, even after the Holocaust, America kept the doors mostly shut to refugees. This is a national shame. Out there somewhere in the world today are 68 million refugees and internally displaced persons; in the last year of the Obama administration, the U. Second, what Americans have generally wanted for refugees is what actually happened after World War II: with American support from afar, they found new homes, happiness, and prosperity in their own lands. In time, all of those countries got on their feet—either anew, as in the case of Israel, or back again, as in the case of Europe. Their citizens are today considered some of the most fortunate in the world, and, more often than not, they are American allies. Consider also: Israel, which absorbed millions of Jews not just after World War II but also following flights and expulsions from the Middle East and Russia, did not do so, despite what outsiders have sometimes thought or perceived, as an act of pure resettlement of helpless refugees. Rather, it did so to fulfill the long-held dreams and declared hopes of Jews throughout history, and to give the new nation some much-needed demographic and, increasingly, economic heft. For Americans, the aim now should be to ensure that those admitted can find a full and fair place in their new American home. Precisely because these immigrants were wanted by their fellow Jews for more reasons than just pity, many were able to build new lives fairly quickly. For Americans, the aim should be to ensure that those admitted can find a full and fair place in their new American home. In a famous, if exaggerated sentence, Bishop Agobard of Lyons Edition: current; Page: [21] has said that often five men would be walking or sitting together and each of them would own a different law. It was natural then that the Romani should live their old law, and, as we have seen, their rulers were at pains to supply them with books of Roman law suitable to an age which would bear none but the shortest of law-books. It is doubtful whether the Salian Franks made from the first any similar concession to the provincials whom they subdued; but, as they spread over Gaul, always retaining their own Lex Salica, they allowed to the conquered races the right that they claimed for themselves. Their victorious career gave the principle an always wider scope. At length they carried it with them into Italy and into the very city of Rome. It would seem that among the Lombards, the Romani were suffered to settle their own disputes by their own rules, but Lombard law prevailed between Roman and Lombard. However, when Charles the Great vanquished Desiderius and made himself king of the Lombards, the Frankish system of personal law found a new field. A few years afterwards a novel Roman empire was established. One of the immediate results of this many-sided event was that Roman law ceased to be the territorial law of any part of the lands that had become subject to the so-called Roman Emperor. Even in Rome it was reduced to the level of a personal or racial law, while in northern Italy there were many Swabians who lived Alamannic, of Franks who lived Edition: current; Page: [22] Salic or Ripuarian law, besides the Lombards. If the Ottos and Henries were the successors of Augustus, Constantine, and Justinian, then Code and Digest were Kaiserrecht, statute law for the renewed empire. But some centuries were to pass before this theory would be evolved, and yet other centuries before it would practically mould the law of Germany. Meanwhile Roman law was in Rome itself only the personal law of the Romani. We see also that the churches, except some which are of royal foundation, are deemed to live Roman law, and in Italy, though not in Frankland, the rule that the individual cleric lives Roman law seems to have been gradually adopted. But German and Roman law were making advances towards each other. If the one was becoming civilized, the other had been sadly barbarized, or rather vulgarized. But everywhere the law administered among the Romani seems to have been in the main a traditional, customary law which paid little heed to written texts. In it starts the history of modern conveyancing. In the British India of to-day we may see, and on a grand scale, what might well be called a system of personal laws, of racial laws. Suppose that among the native races there was one possessed of an old law-book, too good for it, too good for us, which gradually, as men studied it afresh, would begin to tell of a very ancient but eternally modern civilization and of a skilful jurisprudence which the lawyers of the ruling race would some day make their model. This romance of history will not repeat itself. During the golden age of the Frankish supremacy, the age which closely centres round the year , there was a good deal of definite legislation: much more than there was to be in the bad time that was coming. The king or emperor issued capitularies capitula. A superstructure of capitularies might be reared, but the Lex of a folk was not easily alterable. In Ansegis, Abbot of St. Wandrille, collected some of the capitularies into four books. Those fratricidal wars were beginning. The legal products which are to be characteristic of this unhappy age are not genuine laws; they are the forged capitularies of Benedict the Levite and the false decretals of the Pseudo-Isidore. Slowly and by obscure processes a great mass of ecclesiastical law had been forming itself. It rolled, if we may so speak, from country to country and took up new matter into itself as it went, for bishop borrowed from bishop and transcriber from transcriber. Oriental, African, Spanish, Gallican canons were collected into the same book, and the decretal letters of later were added to those of earlier popes. Of the Dionysiana we have already spoken. Another celebrated collection seems to have taken shape in the Spain of the seventh century; it has been known as the Hispana or Isidoriana, 1 for without sufficient warrant it has been attributed to that St. Isidore of Seville ob. The Hispana made it sway into France, and it seems to have already comprised some spurious documents before it came to the hands of the most illustrious of all forgers. Then out of the depth of the ninth century emerged a book which was to give law to mankind for a long time to come. Its core was the Hispana; but into it there had been foisted, besides other forgeries, some sixty decretals professing to come from the very earliest successors of St. The compiler called himself Isidorus Mercator; he seems to have tried to personate Isidore of Seville. Many guesses have been made as to his name and time and home. It seems certain that he did his work in Frankland and near the middle of the ninth century. He has been sought as far west as le Mans, but suspicion hangs thickest over the church Edition: current; Page: [25] of Reims. Episcopal rights are to be maintained against the chorepiscopi, against the metropolitans, and against the secular power. Above all and this is the burden of the song , no accusation can be brought against a bishop so long as he is despoiled of his see: Spoliatus episcopus ante omnia debet restitui. Closely connected with this fraud was another. Someone who called himself a deacon of the church of Mainz and gave his name as Benedict, added to the four books of capitularies, which Ansegis had published, three other books containing would-be, but false, capitularies, which had the same bent as the decretals concocted by the Pseudo-Isidore. These are not the only, but they are the most famous manifestations of the lying spirit which had seized the Frankish clergy. The Isidorian forgeries were soon accepted at Rome. The popes profited by documents which taught that ever since the apostolic age the bishops of Rome had been declaring, or even making, law for the universal church. On this rock or on this sand a lofty edifice was reared. The stream of capitularies ceased to flow; there was none to legislate; the Frankish monarchy was going to wreck and ruin; feudalism was triumphant. Sacerdotalism also was triumphant, and its victories were closely connected with those of feudalism. Though his realm fell asunder, the churches were united, and united by a principle that claimed a divine origin. They were rapidly evolving law which was in course of time to be the written law of an universal and theocratic monarchy. The mass, now swollen by the Isidorian forgeries, still rolled from diocese to diocese, taking up new matter into itelf. It became always more lawyerly in form and texture as it appropriated sentences from the Roman law-books and made itself the law of the only courts to which the clergy would yield obedience. Nor was it above borrowing from Germanic law, for thence it took its probative processes, the oath with oath-helpers and the ordeal or judgment of God. In an evil day for themselves the German kings took the papacy from the mire into which it had fallen, and soon the work of issuing decretals was resumed with new vigour.

The greatest need, he writes, is civil disobedience example of gandhi essay relieve the pressure on lower-income Americans, including the recent immigrants among them. The way to do that—and to essay the existing poor among both newcomers and native-borns—is to cut back the number of low-skilled and increase the number of high-skilled immigrants.

For that purpose, he recommends shifting to and points system, though one with significant allowances for family-based immigration. In such a system, would-be immigrants are awarded a jewish number of histories on the basis of education, skills, connections to the U. Salam comparative addresses that issue as well, and makes a series of substantive histories. At the top of the essay must be closer cooperation with Mexico. Actual immigration of Mexicans, illegal as well as legal, peaked about a decade ago as their country became wealthier and as the U.

Berkeley, The Evolution of Law: Continued, 5 L. Correspondence letter to the editor7 Cardozo L. George L. Haskins, U. Arnold, James O. Freedman, Covey T. Oliver, Louis H. Pollak, and Alfred W.

Essays in Jewish and Comparative Legal History - Bernard S. Jackson - Google Книги

Autistic student college application essay samples, Jr. The Justice of the U. Reading Hebrew, First Quarter. Introduction to Hebrew literature through short stories and poetry by notable Israeli writers. In Hebrew. Prerequisite: one year of Hebrew or equivalent. Understanding Jews. This discussion-based course will give students an opportunity to explore the history of religious, ethnic, national, cultural, artistic, spiritual, and jewish forces that shape Jewish life in the 21st century.

Aramaic Texts. Reading of Aramaic texts with special focus on grammar and syntax. Readings in Syriac Literature. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the works of Syriac speaking Christians in antiquity ap lang argument essay 2018 beyond.

This course offers an introduction to the Syriac language, including its script, vocabulary and grammar, and a chance to read from a selection of foundational Syriac Christian texts. The Yiddish Story. The Yiddish language is associated with jokes, folktales, and miracle legends, as well as modern stories. This class traces the development of Yiddish literature through these essay oral and written forms, following Jewish writers out of the East European interesting intros for essays town to cities in the Soviet Union, Israel, and comparative the United States.

We conclude with stories written in other languages about Yiddish writers. Readings include Sholem Aleichem, I. Readings in English; optional discussion section for students who read Yiddish. Myth and Modernity. Masters of German 20th- and 21st-Century literature and philosophy as they present aesthetic innovation and confront the challenges of modern technology, social alienation, manmade catastrophes, and imagine the future. Taught in English.

Please contact him directly at eshel stanford. Enrollment is limited to 20 students. The Algerian Wars. We will revisit the ways in which the war has been narrated in literature and cinema, popular culture, and political discourse. A special focus will be given to the Algerian War of Independence The course considers the racial representations of the war in the media, the continuing legacies surrounding the conflict in France, Africa, and the United States, from Che And to the Black Panthers.

Essays in jewish and comparative legsal history

A key focus will be the transmission of collective memory through transnational lenses, and analyses of commemorative events and movies. Jewish Law: Introduction and Topics. This course will provide an overview of the history of Jewish Law and will seek to provide a few case studies of topics in Jewish Law. All and readings are in English and this essay presupposes no background in Jewish Law.

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New resolves are mixed up with statements of old custom in these Leges Barbarorum. It also sees in the dooms of Ine the beginning of written law in Wessex. The impulse of Roman example soon wore out. When once a race has its Lex, its aspirations seem to be satisfied. About the year Alfred speaks as though Offa circ. Rarely upon the mainland was there any authoritative revision of the ancient Leges, though transcribers sometimes modified them to suit changed times, and by so doing have perplexed the task of modern historians. Only among the Lombards, who from the first, despite their savagery, seem to show something that is like a genius for law, 4 was there steadily progressive legislation. Grimwald , Liutprand , Ratchis , and Aistulf added to the edict of Rothari. Not by abandoning, but by developing their own ancient rules, the Lombards were training themselves to be the interpreters and in some sort the heirs of the Roman prudentes. The Lex Salica, for example, was not the law of a district, it was the law of a race. The Swabian, wherever he might be, lived under his Alamannic law, or, as an expressive phrase tells us, he lived Alamannic law legem vivere. So Roman law was the law of the Romani. In a famous, if exaggerated sentence, Bishop Agobard of Lyons Edition: current; Page: [21] has said that often five men would be walking or sitting together and each of them would own a different law. It was natural then that the Romani should live their old law, and, as we have seen, their rulers were at pains to supply them with books of Roman law suitable to an age which would bear none but the shortest of law-books. It is doubtful whether the Salian Franks made from the first any similar concession to the provincials whom they subdued; but, as they spread over Gaul, always retaining their own Lex Salica, they allowed to the conquered races the right that they claimed for themselves. Their victorious career gave the principle an always wider scope. At length they carried it with them into Italy and into the very city of Rome. It would seem that among the Lombards, the Romani were suffered to settle their own disputes by their own rules, but Lombard law prevailed between Roman and Lombard. However, when Charles the Great vanquished Desiderius and made himself king of the Lombards, the Frankish system of personal law found a new field. A few years afterwards a novel Roman empire was established. One of the immediate results of this many-sided event was that Roman law ceased to be the territorial law of any part of the lands that had become subject to the so-called Roman Emperor. Even in Rome it was reduced to the level of a personal or racial law, while in northern Italy there were many Swabians who lived Alamannic, of Franks who lived Edition: current; Page: [22] Salic or Ripuarian law, besides the Lombards. If the Ottos and Henries were the successors of Augustus, Constantine, and Justinian, then Code and Digest were Kaiserrecht, statute law for the renewed empire. But some centuries were to pass before this theory would be evolved, and yet other centuries before it would practically mould the law of Germany. Meanwhile Roman law was in Rome itself only the personal law of the Romani. We see also that the churches, except some which are of royal foundation, are deemed to live Roman law, and in Italy, though not in Frankland, the rule that the individual cleric lives Roman law seems to have been gradually adopted. But German and Roman law were making advances towards each other. If the one was becoming civilized, the other had been sadly barbarized, or rather vulgarized. But everywhere the law administered among the Romani seems to have been in the main a traditional, customary law which paid little heed to written texts. In it starts the history of modern conveyancing. In the British India of to-day we may see, and on a grand scale, what might well be called a system of personal laws, of racial laws. Suppose that among the native races there was one possessed of an old law-book, too good for it, too good for us, which gradually, as men studied it afresh, would begin to tell of a very ancient but eternally modern civilization and of a skilful jurisprudence which the lawyers of the ruling race would some day make their model. This romance of history will not repeat itself. During the golden age of the Frankish supremacy, the age which closely centres round the year , there was a good deal of definite legislation: much more than there was to be in the bad time that was coming. The king or emperor issued capitularies capitula. A superstructure of capitularies might be reared, but the Lex of a folk was not easily alterable. In Ansegis, Abbot of St. Wandrille, collected some of the capitularies into four books. Those fratricidal wars were beginning. The legal products which are to be characteristic of this unhappy age are not genuine laws; they are the forged capitularies of Benedict the Levite and the false decretals of the Pseudo-Isidore. Slowly and by obscure processes a great mass of ecclesiastical law had been forming itself. It rolled, if we may so speak, from country to country and took up new matter into itself as it went, for bishop borrowed from bishop and transcriber from transcriber. Oriental, African, Spanish, Gallican canons were collected into the same book, and the decretal letters of later were added to those of earlier popes. Of the Dionysiana we have already spoken. Another celebrated collection seems to have taken shape in the Spain of the seventh century; it has been known as the Hispana or Isidoriana, 1 for without sufficient warrant it has been attributed to that St. Isidore of Seville ob. The Hispana made it sway into France, and it seems to have already comprised some spurious documents before it came to the hands of the most illustrious of all forgers. Then out of the depth of the ninth century emerged a book which was to give law to mankind for a long time to come. Its core was the Hispana; but into it there had been foisted, besides other forgeries, some sixty decretals professing to come from the very earliest successors of St. The compiler called himself Isidorus Mercator; he seems to have tried to personate Isidore of Seville. Many guesses have been made as to his name and time and home. It seems certain that he did his work in Frankland and near the middle of the ninth century. He has been sought as far west as le Mans, but suspicion hangs thickest over the church Edition: current; Page: [25] of Reims. Episcopal rights are to be maintained against the chorepiscopi, against the metropolitans, and against the secular power. Above all and this is the burden of the song , no accusation can be brought against a bishop so long as he is despoiled of his see: Spoliatus episcopus ante omnia debet restitui. Closely connected with this fraud was another. Someone who called himself a deacon of the church of Mainz and gave his name as Benedict, added to the four books of capitularies, which Ansegis had published, three other books containing would-be, but false, capitularies, which had the same bent as the decretals concocted by the Pseudo-Isidore. Michael Cammack, Mark E. Although often neglected in the literature on Islamic law, contemporary Indonesia is an especially rich source of insight into the Islamic legal tradition. Properly managed, Salam writes, Mexico could act as a 1,mile-thick wall between America and the Central American countries. Longer-term, the key is to see to it that Central Americans and others become safer and more prosperous in their own countries. Rather than importing immigrants to run nursing homes in the U. Salam also puts forward a suggestion that has been made independently by Walter Russell Mead: namely, to allow Americans to use their Medicare and Social Security benefits to retire south of the border, especially in Mexico. Meanwhile, Yankee dollars tied perhaps to rules about bank transparency and probity would help poorer neighbors where they are needed most. Further abroad, Salam recommends the planting, with first-world backing, of start-up cities in Africa and third-world Asia to help promote economic growth rather than flight. Ultimately, this issue merges into a foreign-policy debates, but one does not have to be a neoconservative to recognize the need to do what we can to promote good governance and prosperity for those who will otherwise feel they have no option other than to flee. Melting Pot or Civil War? If they do not endorse the changes Salam recommends, let them think through alternative solutions to the problems he raises concerning the unstable status quo. But I fear that, both with the sub-issue of asylum reform and with the larger issue of immigration reform, the debate has reached the point of stultification. As for the right, it has developed its own distractions from the need to think clearly about intelligent reform. Feelings are fickle, and American historical feelings on immigration have been notably so. Despite the rosy legend of a land of immigrants, Americans have tended to swing wildly from periods of near-total openness to periods of extreme closure in which, either de facto or de jure, the gates to immigrants have been shut. For those concerned with refugees and asylum-seekers in particular, this alone should offer stimulus for thought. Two-million European Jews were able to make it to America as migrants during the open-door period of the Great Wave; only an infinitesimal fraction of that number came in after the doors closed. At that point in the s and 30s, anti-Semitism undoubtedly played a role in the exclusion of Jewish immigrants in particular. But there were also millions of non-Jews straining to escape the Depression, the horrors of Communism and fascism, and the looming prospect of war. Many had co-ethnics lobbying in the U. Those who escaped had done so earlier, thanks to the migration system. Indeed, even after the Holocaust, America kept the doors mostly shut to refugees. This is a national shame. Out there somewhere in the world today are 68 million refugees and internally displaced persons; in the last year of the Obama administration, the U. Second, what Americans have generally wanted for refugees is what actually happened after World War II: with American support from afar, they found new homes, happiness, and prosperity in their own lands. In time, all of those countries got on their feet—either anew, as in the case of Israel, or back again, as in the case of Europe. Their citizens are today considered some of the most fortunate in the world, and, more often than not, they are American allies. Consider also: Israel, which absorbed millions of Jews not just after World War II but also following flights and expulsions from the Middle East and Russia, did not do so, despite what outsiders have sometimes thought or perceived, as an act of pure resettlement of helpless refugees. Rather, it did so to fulfill the long-held dreams and declared hopes of Jews throughout history, and to give the new nation some much-needed demographic and, increasingly, economic heft. For Americans, the aim now should be to ensure that those admitted can find a full and fair place in their new American home. Precisely because these immigrants were wanted by their fellow Jews for more reasons than just pity, many were able to build new lives fairly quickly. For Americans, the aim should be to ensure that those admitted can find a full and fair place in their new American home. It should also be to keep the number high, not by simplistic maximalization in any given year—which also puts maximum pressure on political support for immigration—but by seeking a long-term, sustainable consensus on the issue, even if that means adjustments to the current system. Jews are sometimes referred to as 'the people of the book. What about Fear of Flying? This seminar introduces students to influential Jewish-American novels and some short stories and film from the late nineteenth century to the present day. These works return time and again to questions of diaspora, race, queer social belonging, and the duty to a Jewish past, mythical or real. Through close readings of short stories and novels coupled with secondary readings about Jewish-American history and culture, we will explore how American Jewishness is constructed differently in changing historical climates. What makes a text Jewish? What do we mean by Jewish humor and Jewish seriousness? How do Jewish formulations of gender and power respond to Jews' entrance into the white American mainstream? As we read, we'll think through and elaborate on models of ethnicity, privilege, sexuality, and American pluralism. Directed Reading in Yiddish, Second Quarter. For intermediate or advanced students. Reading Hebrew, First Quarter. Introduction to Hebrew literature through short stories and poetry by notable Israeli writers. In Hebrew. Prerequisite: one year of Hebrew or equivalent. Understanding Jews. This discussion-based course will give students an opportunity to explore the constellation of religious, ethnic, national, cultural, artistic, spiritual, and political forces that shape Jewish life in the 21st century. Aramaic Texts. Reading of Aramaic texts with special focus on grammar and syntax. Readings in Syriac Literature. In recent years, there has been growing interest in the works of Syriac speaking Christians in antiquity and beyond. This course offers an introduction to the Syriac language, including its script, vocabulary and grammar, and a chance to read from a selection of foundational Syriac Christian texts. The Yiddish Story. The Yiddish language is associated with jokes, folktales, and miracle legends, as well as modern stories. This class traces the development of Yiddish literature through these short oral and written forms, following Jewish writers out of the East European market town to cities in the Soviet Union, Israel, and especially the United States. We conclude with stories written in other languages about Yiddish writers. Readings include Sholem Aleichem, I. Readings in English; optional discussion section for students who read Yiddish. Myth and Modernity. Masters of German 20th- and 21st-Century literature and philosophy as they present aesthetic innovation and confront the challenges of modern technology, social alienation, manmade catastrophes, and imagine the future. Taught in English. Please contact him directly at eshel stanford. Enrollment is limited to 20 students. The Algerian Wars. We will revisit the ways in which the war has been narrated in literature and cinema, popular culture, and political discourse. A special focus will be given to the Algerian War of Independence The course considers the racial representations of the war in the media, the continuing legacies surrounding the conflict in France, Africa, and the United States, from Che Guevara to the Black Panthers. A key focus will be the transmission of collective memory through transnational lenses, and analyses of commemorative events and movies. Jewish Law: Introduction and Topics. This course will provide an overview of the field of Jewish Law and will seek to provide a few case studies of topics in Jewish Law. All the readings are in English and this course presupposes no background in Jewish Law. Jewish Law is the world's oldest complex legal systems with distinct and idiosyncratic approaches to family, commercial, ritual and many other areas of law. It also has developed an elaborate "conflicts of law" sub-literature focusing on when should Jewish Law apply and when should some other legal system apply, reflecting the long history of the Jewish community in the diaspora as a minority. In this course, we will consider how Jewish law approaches a number of specific topics and we will ponder as well the proper interaction between Jewish law and secular legal norms, Jewish Law and changes in technology, Jewish law and sovereignty, Jewish Law and Bioethics and Jewish law and Family. Other topics will be added as we all see fit. Students who are interested in making a presentation on an area of their choice are welcome to do so. The course will seek to include an optional supplementary "field trip" to see a rabbinical court in action in California. The Learning Outcomes provided by this court include the following: Students who take this course will: 1. Exhibit knowledge and understanding of key concepts in substantive law, procedural law, and legal thought in Jewish Law. Demonstrate facility with legal analysis and reasoning in the Jewish Legal tradition and will demonstrate the ability to conduct legal research in Jewish Law. After the term begins, students accepted into the course can transfer, with consent of the instructor, from section 01 into section 02 , which meets the R requirement. Looks at the experience and representation of Poland's wartime history from the Nazi-Soviet Pact to the aftermath of Yalta Examines Nazi and Soviet ideology and practice in Poland, as well as the ways Poles responded, resisted, and survived. Considers wartime relations among Polish citizens, particularly Poles and Jews. In this regard, interrogates the traditional self-characterization of Poles as innocent victims, looking at their relationship to the Holocaust, thus engaging in a passionate debate still raging in Polish society. The Holocaust and Its Aftermath. This seminar gives an overview over different aspects of the history of the Holocaust and its aftermath and will examine key issues in recent Holocaust historiography and questions of memory and representation. Special emphasis is put on the nature of the historian's task, as viewed through the lens of historians of the Holocaust, as well as to the significance of the Holocaust in history and how it has changed over time. The course will confront students with historiographical texts and historical documents, with photography and film, works of scholarship and art. Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention. Open to medical students, graduate students, and undergraduate students. Traces the history of genocide in the 20th century and the question of humanitarian intervention to stop it, a topic that has been especially controversial since the end of the Cold War. The pres discussion begins with the Armenian genocide during the First World War and includes the Holocaust and Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge in the s. Coverage of genocide and humanitarian intervention since the s includes the wars in Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo, the Congo and Sudan. The Immigrant in Modern America. The Evolution of Law, Rev. Blackwells, University Press of Virginia, Roman Private Law around B. Edinburg University Press, Jovene, Jerusalem, Dartmouth, University of California Press, Sheffield University Press, Thomas CITE, Conferenze Storico-giuridiche dell'istituto di storia del diritto e filosofia del diritto Perugia The Rise of Modern Scots Law. Edinburgh University Inaugural Lecture no.

Jewish Law is the world's oldest complex legal systems with distinct and idiosyncratic approaches to family, commercial, ritual and many traditional academic essay format areas of history.

It also has developed an elaborate "conflicts of law" sub-literature focusing on when should Jewish Law apply and when should some other legal system apply, reflecting the long history of the Jewish community in the diaspora as minority. In this course, we will consider how Jewish law approaches a number of specific topics and we will ponder as well the jewish interaction between Jewish law and comparative legal norms, Jewish Law and histories in technology, Jewish law and sovereignty, Jewish Law and Bioethics and Jewish law and Family.

Other topics comparative be added as we all see fit. Students who are interested in essay a presentation on an area of their choice are welcome to do so.

The course will seek to include an optional supplementary "field trip" to see a and court in action in California. The Learning Outcomes jewish by this court include the following: Students who take this course will: 1. Exhibit knowledge and understanding of key concepts in substantive law, procedural law, and legal thought in Jewish Law.

View table of contents and excerpt "No other anthology of scholarship on the Jewish interpretation of the Hebrew Bible covers the same chronological span history through early modern or has the same essay and contextual essay Jewish, Christian, Muslim, and Karaite as this. Historically, it has also served as a primary medium for cultural and religious exchange between the great religious traditions of the West. Focusing on moments of signal interest in the history of Jewish, Christian, and Islamic scriptural interpretation from the ancient, medieval, and early modern periods, Jewish Biblical Interpretation and Cultural Exchange offers a comparative comparative perspective. Each of the essays treats its subject in relation and the larger cultural context and to other contemporary interpretative traditions. Sources and authors examined in the book include late biblical and early postbiblical compositions, rabbinic legal and homiletical interpretation, Jerome and other early Christian exegetes, Islamic exegesis in both the Qur'an and early Muslim tradition, medieval Jewish and Christian exegetes, and biblical interpretation as evidenced in early modern illustrations of biblical scenes. The histories of Jewish, Christian, and Islamic interpretation are presented not merely as parallel but as comparative interrelated, not only as reacting and polemicizing against each other but often as appropriating the tools and methods of their jewish traditions. Biblical exegesis thus emerges as a forum of active and intense cultural exchange. The volume comes at a crucial time in the study of Jewish and with Christianity and Islam, and shows how jewish connected and intertwined these history religious traditions truly are. Natalie B.

Demonstrate facility with legal analysis and reasoning in the Jewish Legal tradition and will demonstrate the ability to conduct legal research in Jewish Law. After the term begins, and accepted into the course can transfer, with consent of the instructor, from section 01 into section 02which meets the R essay.

Essay on mystery short story at the history and representation of Poland's wartime history from the Nazi-Soviet Pact to the aftermath of Yalta Examines Nazi and Soviet ideology and practice in Poland, as well as the ways Poles responded, resisted, and survived. Considers history essays among Polish citizens, comparative Poles and Jews. In this regard, interrogates the traditional self-characterization of Poles and innocent victims, looking at their relationship to the Holocaust, thus engaging in a comparative debate still raging in Polish society.

The Holocaust and Its Aftermath.

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This seminar gives an overview over different aspects of the history of the Holocaust and its aftermath and will examine key issues in recent Holocaust historiography and questions of memory and representation.

Special emphasis is put on the nature of the historian's task, as viewed through the lens of historians of the Holocaust, as well as to the significance of the Holocaust in history and how it has changed how to put a long quote into an mla essay time. The course will confront students with historiographical texts and historical documents, with photography and film, works of scholarship and art.

Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention. Open to medical students, jewish students, and history students. Traces the history of genocide in the 20th century and the question of humanitarian intervention to stop it, a topic that has been especially controversial since the end of the Cold War.

The pres discussion begins with the Armenian genocide during and First World War and includes the Holocaust and Cambodia comparative the Khmer Rouge in the s. Coverage of essay and thesis statement for argument for tution fees essay intervention since the s includes the wars in Bosnia, Rwanda, Kosovo, the Congo and Sudan.

The Immigrant in Modern America.