This research seeks to bridge one of the widest knowledge gaps on the effects of TOD on travel demand: automobile trip generation rates for residential TODs. Empirical evidence on vehicle trip generation can inform the setting of parking re- quirements for projects near major transit stations. Despite the existing body of research and supportive local develop- ment, codes developers and financial institutions still tend to prefer conventional parking ratios in TODs. As a conse- quence most TODs are oblivious to the fact that a rail stop is nearby and as a result, their potential benefits e.
Structured parking in particular has a significant impact on development costs and is prohibitively expensive in most markets. Lower TOD parking ratios and reduced parking could reduce construction costs, leading to somewhat denser TODs in some markets.
Similarly, many proposed TOD projects have been halted abruptly or redesigned at lower densities due to fears that dense development will flood surrounding streets with auto traffic. Part of the problem lays in the inadequacy of current trip generation estimates, which are thought to overstate the potential auto impacts of TOD.
ITE trip generation and parking generation rates are the standards from which local traffic and parking impacts are typically derived, and impact fees are set. Some analysts are of the opinion that there is a serious suburban bias in the current ITE rates. Typically, empirical data used to set generation rates are drawn from suburban areas with free and plentiful parking and low-density single land uses.
The end result is that auto trip generation is likely to be overstated for TODs. This can mean that TOD de- velopers end up paying higher impact fees, proffers, and exactions than they should since such charges are usually tied to ITE rates.
Smart growth requires smart calculations, thus impact fees need to account for the likely trip reduction effects of TOD. Study Projects This study aims to fill knowledge gaps by compiling and analyzing original empirical data on vehicle trip generation rates for a representative sample of multi-family housing projects near rail transit stations. Case study sites were chosen in conjunction with the HA panel.
The primary focus of this research is on resi- dential housing ITE, There is hope the research prompts local offi- cials to challenge how they evaluate the likely traffic impacts of housing near major rail transit stations as well as the parking policies for these projects.
The research, moreover, complements several other studies presently underway that aim to further refine trip generation rates to account for the trip-reducing impacts of mixed-use development typically through internal capture. For studying traffic impacts of multi-family housing near rail stations, we selected mainly multi-family apartments rental and in one instance, a condominium project owner- occupied.
Table 2. Most proj- ects were garden-style in design, around three to four stories in height. The sampled Washington Metrorail projects, however, tended to be much higher as revealed by the photo images, with the exception of Avalon near the Bethesda Metro- rail station.
The average number of parking spaces per proj- ect was around , yielding an average rate of 1. Another selection criterion was the project not be immedi- ately accessible to a freeway interchange. For these projects, land building is especially advantageous to both state and development interests because it can bypass traditional land acquisition and because it is unencumbered by prior legal claims, uses, or ecological functions.
Compared to inland property, the relative mobility of built land makes it better suited to market-led development. Focusing on the peninsular state of Johor, I analyze tensions between the agrarian property regime created by land alienation and recent real estate development pressures.
I then turn to the case of Forest City, a large-scale real estate development being built in the straits between Johor and Singapore. By exploiting Malaysian land alienation procedures, the developer fully captures an unexploited rent gap and the state government avoids directly contending with social costs that usually accompany large-scale real estate development.
However, my thesis shows that these gains are realized only by overwriting existing production regimes and exposing all actors to global market risks.
Aurora Bassett Thesis Advisor: J. Years of active neglect by the military government have preserved these aging structures, but are now coming to an end amid pressure to modernize and campaigns to actively restore the historic downtown.
In this thesis I explore the politics of preservation and the market forces of international tourism that have led to nostalgic restorations of colonial relations for elite travelers. Despite this interest in using community-oriented workspaces to catalyze new economic opportunities, policymakers, developers, and other economic development professionals in Massachusetts lack a comprehensive picture of what spaces are currently available that aim to support innovation and entrepreneurship.
Further analysis of the innovation ecosystem in Worcester suggested opportunities to attract mid-stage start-ups and mid-career entrepreneurs rather than focus on undergraduate student retention as an economic development strategy. As climate change causes further challenges for agriculture, it seems wise to work on developing resilience strategies for this industry.
Most research on these topics has been focused on generating high-tech systems that require considerable amounts of energy and financial resources. However, the reality is that countries facing the biggest hurdles when it comes to these matters do not have the necessary means to create sophisticated projects at large scales.
The best option right now is to learn how to use drought management strategies and spatial patterns to allow for better use of water resources. This thesis explores how the spatial distribution and interaction of hydrological resources, geological features, climate patterns, topography, and water infrastructure impact agricultural production in the Central Valley in California. Rather than developing one final solution, this thesis presents options for further exploration based on the specific conditions of California.
This will allow readers to better understand how to improve water use and access for agriculture in a scenario of drought. The intention is for this approach to be replicable and adaptable so it can improve agricultural production and food security in other regions or countries facing similar conditions due to climate change.
However, many studies have shown that prisons often have weak linkages to the host community, and sometimes have negligible or even negative impacts on rural economies. A combination of factors including changing sentencing laws, inadequate conditions in facilities, fiscal conservatism, and increasing reliance on community based alternatives to incarceration are now leading to prison closures all around the country.
In this changing context, this thesis explores i What are the real and perceived impacts of prison closures on local economies in small rural counties? New York City declined to participate, but offered to acquire storm-damaged homes in other areas where the New York State buyout was not offered.
The intention was to resell these properties to new private owners at auction, to be redeveloped to flood-resistant building standards. By contrast, the New York State program, which has purchased 37 acres of land within the year floodplain, was legally bound to hold the acquired properties as open space in perpetuity, promising former residents that their land would become a buffer for inland areas, creating more resilient land use along the vulnerable coastline.
This thesis analyzes the success of the state program in enhancing resiliency by assessing participation and attrition rates within designated buyout areas, as well as reasons for attrition. The lack of coordinated goals and agreed-upon tools prevented New York Rising from successfully creating a coastal buffer area to protect residents from sea level rise and future flooding. Unprecedented urbanization in China, combined with the increase of extreme weather events globally, has made Chinese cities more vulnerable to natural hazards such as urban flooding.
This induces higher costs in operation and maintenance, as well as generates little economic return in most cases, making these projects largely unattractive to private investors and hard to meet their environmental and financial objectives simultaneously. The vision of Beloved Community, in which wealth is distributed equally, social hierarchies are disassembled, and people across all differences can live together like family has fueled and guided many civil rights social movements.
This thesis posits that the planning profession should consider using this vision as a serious guiding concept for designing community development strategies that create more opportunities for active love and relationship across deep social divides.
The research then tests whether a focus on relationship have tangible effects on how Bellevue residents plan by examining data from two focus groups with high school students in which they planned for actively bridging local social divides. This research suggests that planning with a direct focus on strengthening relationship across difference can generate strategies that may be more comprehensive and effective in ultimately building toward communities in which all are loved.
This research asks whether planning that explicitly focuses on strengthening relationship across difference such as race and class can generate community strategies different than those currently recommended in the planning literature. Specifically, I explore this question in Bellevue, Pennsylvania, an inner ring suburb of Pittsburgh. To explore ways in which a focus on relationship could assist planning in Bellevue and similar places, the research examines data from 26 interviews with local residents, as well as the literature on policy recommendations for inner ring suburbs.
Chinatowns in cities like Boston, New York, and Philadelphia have well established reputations as vibrant ethnic neighborhoods that draw tourists as well as working-Chinese immigrants. The individual businesses that line the streets of Chinatown are crucial to creating these unique urban neighborhoods.
As cities are undergoing a new era of growth, and real estate activity in urban centers is booming, the impacts on small businesses has not yet been widely researched. This thesis uses Chinatowns in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia as case studies to uncover the impacts of new real estate developments on small businesses. The research relies on a mixed-method approach, utilizing quantitative data from city reports or census data, as well as qualitative data derived from interviews with local stakeholders, particularly small business owners.
In contrast, the top concerns identified by business owners were 1 the image of Chinatown as dirty and 2 the availability of parking. The mismatch between the impacts of development and the concerns of business owners deserves more research but was not fully addressed in this thesis. The conclusion of this thesis provides readers with a preliminary framework for assessing displacement risks that can be applied to other ethnic districts and suggests possible interventions that can mitigate some of these risks.
Samantha Cohen Thesis Advisors: Mary Anne Ocampo and Rafi Segal Ecovillages as Models for Sustainable Urban Neighborhoods: Design Guidelines and Methods for Understanding, Analyzing, and Designing Sustainable Communities Ecovillages, which are grassroots intentional communities focused on the shared values of environmental sustainability and community-building, offer an alternative to traditional development primarily focused on developer profit, which creates incentives to build cheaply with little consideration for sustainability, reducing operating costs, creation of community or innovation in building techniques.
The problem with modern development practices is that there is an absence of truly sustainable, community-oriented housing options on the market that are economically empowering, socially just, and which enhance the ecology of place by building all forms of capital — economic capital, social capital, and environmental capital. This thesis explores the best practices in ecovillage urban design in urbanized and rural settings to improve the design of current and future ecovillages and to use as a design model communities or designers in building sustainable communities, as urban design is inherently linked to sustainability.
Through the creation of a matrix of sustainable urban design strategies, this can be used to compare various ecovillages and sustainable communities to understand and analyze how values are embodied in the physical site design or constrained by urban site conditions, and give a process and design guidelines to designers and communities looking to create sustainable neighborhoods or ecovillages.
Existing scholarship on prison labor endeavors to understand the role of prison labor as rehabilitation or punishment and its role in the larger system of incarceration. In Boston, population growth and rising housing costs have spurred new development of luxury housing and renovation of existing residential buildings, putting pressure on existing neighborhood tenants and homeowners. This thesis seeks to understand why and how advocates proposed this act and what barriers it faces in implementation.
In this case study, I discuss the difficulties of drafting and passing progressive housing policy in increasingly unaffordable urban areas and the need for a broader conversation about the right to housing for residents. In New York City, the spread is 6. Using data scraped from the property tax bills of every parcel in the City, this investigation finds that the Department of Finance deviates significantly from its publicized process when calculating tax bills, and moreover, that property taxes are poorly correlated with land, market, and assessed values.
Lastly, this examination finds that any move towards a more functional system will require broad-based support from grassroots to grasstops. The final chapter outlines a rough framework for building such a movement. Francis Goyes Thesis Advisor: Balakrishnan Rajagopal The Politics of Implementation: Towards a Pro-Poor Land Legalization Policy in Quito Since its inception, the development of Quito has been at the mercy of the very few that owned land, with little regard for the greater majority who to this day continue to struggle for their constitutional right to the city.
I ask how constitutional and legislative arrangements have been implemented and operationalized to address the successes and failures of the land legalization efforts of Quito using a pro-poor framework. I concentrate on the policies enacted by the last three Municipal administrations as well as Regula tu Barrio Legalize your Neighborhood , the current program for legalizing informal settlements in Quito.
While legalization policies have existed since the late s, they were never fully operationalized due to the low capacity of the Municipality, clientelist practices and lack of continued political interest.
Through a pro-poor policy analysis, I argue that following the ratification of the Constitution and other national legislation, the Municipality had a greater responsibility towards establishing a pro-poor policy towards land legalization, which resulted in an increase of legalized neighborhoods and basic infrastructure provision for previously informal settlements.
I also show that while there appears to be continuity through Municipal administrations, difficulties for legalization remain, including evaluation mechanisms, overcoming obstacles of land traffickers and community organizations, and creation of a comprehensive policy for land and housing. Home is a crucial concept to consider in urban planning; it humanizes the lived experiences of every city-dweller, asserting that these places are not just places but homes.
The community of Watts in South Central Los Angeles, California serves as a case study for understanding what meaningful content collecting narratives on home can reveal. As my own homeplace, the thesis also operates as a journey of self-discovery in rethinking preconceived understandings of this concept.
This research is both a personal and political statement about the power of maintaining quality of life for vulnerable populations through sustaining the homeplace. As an act to fight against displacement, the collected narratives reveal the important complexities of how individuals define home, ranging from individualistic, to relational, to spatial, and beyond.
However, there are many local benefits associated with buyout programs, including the removal of services from the neighborhood, increased flood protection for adjacent neighborhoods, and increased green space for conservation and recreation purposes. With limited federal funding for these programs, policy designers make an effort to maximize these local planning goals.
First, I compared the programs through the lens of 8 key policy decisions including parent institutions, funding sources, municipal relationships, community outreach, the offer package, cluster selection process, continued land management and future plans. As states design the next generation of buyout programs to deal with the increased flood risks associated with climate change, this paper will help guide buyout policy to achieve better outcomes. Ryan Building Resiliency or Holding off the Inevitable?
Climate Adaptation on a Dense Barrier Island in New York Finishing the hottest year on record, which happens to be the third hottest year in a row, climate change at this point is indisputable. The need to adapt to a changing climate has become increasingly apparent in low-lying coastal towns and cities as the impacts from climate change including more frequent and powerful storms and rising sea levels intensify.
The question of how small, dense, and highly vulnerable coastal communities stay in place, adapt, and build resiliency remains for the most part unanswered. I aim to shed light on this by employing a mixed method research design incorporating qualitative and observational methods in the analysis of climate adaptation planning on the barrier island of Long Beach, NY five years after Hurricane Sandy left the island devastated.
However, based on my analysis, I make recommendations for a regional approach to resiliency, whereby the various governing bodies of the island together devise a plan for the entire island as one landmass and natural ecology. This new regional entity would be in a position to consider a plan for strategic retreat of those most vulnerable socioeconomically from the places most susceptible to storm surge and sea level rise to safer ground within the same island, as well as to pursue other feasible approaches to creating resiliency for the barrier island of Long Beach.
Despite its size, SEPTA is the last major transportation agency to change their fare medium from a token to contactless fare cards. Although the implementation is not currently complete for the Philadelphia Metropolitan area as of May , the ten-year process provides information for the decisions made that lead to delays. Dominant literature posits Black business at best a modest attempt of American entrepreneurship, unable to change the collective economic status of Black Americans.
Researchers cite the lack of business acumen and institutionalized racism as coupled barriers to business class formation and success. These perspectives essentialize Black business existence from deficit-based paradigms of illegitimacy and underperformance.
Similarly, small business support organizations see the value of Black business through a narrow lens as supporting local hiring and increasing economic vitality of the city. But what if the assumed definition of business success is limited in defining Black entrepreneurial success?
Black businesses have served as spaces of safety, economic exchange, cultural solidarity, public discourse, and innovation for their Black consumers. Using oral histories, discourse analysis and archival documents, this thesis investigates how Black business owners define their own success and challenges, articulate their other forms of value to the city, and how small business support organizations are empowering these business owners to reach their self-defined notions of success.
Since NUCs are not well connected by official public transport to the inner city, they have a higher than average population of car drivers. Low income residents that have moved to the NUCs were largely relocated from demolished informal housing in the inner core. We believe that these NUCs, which represent a significant investment in infrastructure, can be viable and attractive to a diverse socio-economic group if their accessibility to jobs and points of interest were improved.
The World Bank has commissioned a study for the recommendation of 3 Key Bus routes to improve the public transit network in the Greater Cairo Region. To implement such an analysis with missing official data on job locations and numbers, a novel approach was used to build such a dataset using a combination of scraped online directory data and official census and survey sources.
The resulting recommendation of key bus routes is based on a robust method of analysis. However, the UN also estimates that 1 in 8 people in the world currently live in slums; furthermore, slum populations are growing at a rate of 4. Nairobi, the capital of Kenya, is known for having large slum settlements and a high degree of spatial inequality.
While slums are expanding at a rapid rate, cities in the Global South lack the crucial data to monitor deepening spatial inequalities. Current urban poverty assessments rely on census data, poverty maps or slum demarcation maps, however, for city planning, these are subject to limitations. Acknowledging these significant trends, this thesis applies ML to generate useful insights on spatial inequality in Nairobi.
The research incorporates data from multiple sources including: census, satellite imagery and data derived from calculations in GIS. The research will explore two ML methods. The first method attempts to map living conditions for small areas in the city. Moreover, the second method will generate residential typologies or zones for equitable investment and land management in the city.
One of the overall aims of the research is to contribute to the wider conversation on how ML may be applied in the realms of policy and city planning in the Global South. Existing planning literature falls short of answering at least three broad areas of inquiry that can help local governments navigate this challenge.
First, there is a general lack of understanding of if, when, and how local governments use negotiation-based zoning. Second, little empirical research thus has examined the negotiated outputs. The first paper surveys the current state of zoning practices; I investigate the experiences of Boston, Chicago, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle to explore if, when, and how they have negotiated zoning on a project-by-project basis. I compare the experience of Boston and Seattle in more detail to explore this subject.
The third and final paper delves deep into the micro-politics of negotiations for the largest private development in Boston to expose who actually influenced the negotiations and whether public participation mattered in the process.
Tamara Knox Thesis Advisor: Dennis Frenchman The Frolic Model: Transforming single-family homes into urban cohousing We founded the development firm Frolic to respond to the following questions: Can we introduce the benefits of density to urban America without displacing the people who live there?
Can we bring the comfort of permanence and planting roots to the non-wealthy? Can we build places that make daily life easier, more affordable, and more enjoyable?
This thesis articulates the Frolic Model developed through the DesignX incubator at MIT with input from over 40 developers and city staff working in major cities across the U. In our research, we found that there are several potential mutual gains lost in the current housing development paradigm - between property owners, investors, future residents, developers and community members. By restructuring the development process around mutual gains, the Frolic Model brings the benefits of home ownership to a broader population, while allowing smaller, more intimate development projects to become viable.
The three principles of the Frolic Model are cooperative financing, codevelopment, and cohousing. The cooperative financing structure enables crowd-investing and a decoupling of share ownership and tenancy. This allows residents to act as long-term tenants of a project without requiring a large down payment or a personal mortgage. It also allows others in the neighborhood to buy shares in the project and invest in a tangible, low-risk, low-return community asset. Over time, low wealth residents can purchase more shares and build additional equity in their home.
Partnering with land owners to co-develop their property, we allow them to avoid displacement and financially benefit from redevelopment. Through elements of cohousing, we create infrastructure for community and improve affordability through shared amenities. Many cities around the world are experimenting with ways to address these dynamics by developing formal systems known as Material Recovery Facilities MRFs.
Scholars and practitioners are positive about the potential of these decentralized recycling processing facilities for improving the sorting of recyclable materials in urban areas. However, the effects of particular arrangements of these facilities on informal-sector recyclers are less well known.
In Mumbai, India, the municipal government has proposed introducing MRFs in each ward of the city, and hopes to integrate informal recyclers into the MRF system. I focus on the effect of these MRFs on kabadiwalas, small-scale aggregators in the informal sector. Using economic and geospatial data for three wards of the city, I compare the proposed decentralized MRF system with the current hierarchical system of informal recycling to understand the economic benefits to the kabadiwala within each system.
This comparison helps shed light on an essential but poorly understood sector of urban infrastructure. It explores whether this formalization effort truly benefits informal workers, and reveals potential differences in policy implementation at a more granular level. Measurement strategy for successful land reforms in Rwanda The recent land tenure reforms in Rwanda have the potential to permanently influence the debate around land titling and clear property rights.
In , Rwanda decided to abandon traditional property rights and to embrace formal rights, least did it know it would transform itself by moving from no land records to one of the most advanced and formalized land records in less than two decades.
This view presents FFP as cheaper and low-tech solution similar to that of Rwanda, but sub-par as compared to developed countries. This thesis questions the correctness of this sub-par view. However, despite the high rankings is ease of registering property and the 6th lowest transaction fee in the world, people are still transacting property informally.
This raises three questions - Is it ever possible or efficient enough to completely formalise all property transactions? This thesis is an attempt to analyse the land tenure reforms in Rwanda to deduce the important learnings for implementation of titling projects elsewhere. There is a lack of literature looking at this subject in cities in developing countries.
Secondly, it identifies the possible causes of variation of TBM among different socio-economic groups. Thirdly, it charts how policy and infrastructure decisions on the Mumbai Suburban Railway and the Mumbai Metro can be informed by ICT-related and social TBM activities performed by riders during on-board travel time. An 43 on-board intercept survey of riders conducted in August on the Western line of the Mumbai Suburban Railway was used to analyze revealed and stated preferences of TBM activities.
Results of choice models were further deconstructed with insights from unstructured interviews. Age and willingness to pay per minute were the strongest predictors of TBM activities. Female riders displayed a higher tendency to socialize on mass transit when compared to male riders and frequently perceived general compartments on the Mumbai Suburban Railway as unsafe to perform ICT-related activities.
How are the tools of design enabling and constraining transformative adaptation? This study addresses these questions by analyzing the evolving politics of flood mitigation in Dhaka and New Orleans, two levee-dependent cities considering sweeping changes to their flood mitigation strategies.
It uses a range of data, including: archival research; field observations; and interviews with residents, experts, and participants in recent planning processes. Considering contemporary climate adaptation efforts in the context of historical flood mitigation, the study finds that, while emerging practices hold promise, there is reason for caution.
The development of levee and pump infrastructure in both Dhaka and New Orleans was uneven, crisis-driven, and contested. Critics in both cities increasingly regard levee-enabled growth as unwise and unjust. Though levee boosters promised modernization and orderly growth, their efforts created distinctly different patterns of uneven urbanization and vulnerability in each city.
While the tools of design offer potential improvements for flood mitigation projects, designers often do not grapple with the political contestations that come with such projects, using their tools to ignore, obscure, or rush past distributional impacts.
The project takes as its focus sites of black public history: locations in the built environment where history is put to work in the public realm. How do public parks and boulevards, streetscapes and thresholds of private homes, and collections and exhibitions of storied black cultural organizations compose an urban constellation of black public history? This thesis seeks to unpack how developers and city planning officials negotiate zoning amendments and determine how much public benefits matter throughout the review process.
Given the differing viewpoints between planners and developers, I hope to provide clarity on the considerations of both sides.
My thesis recognizes that the negotiation between the city and developers to reach the development agreements and determine public benefits is a complex, crucial planning process which lacks sufficient scholarly attention to bridge theory and practice. I found that despite substantial risk and other obstacles, both development teams showed willingness and commitment to embrace the public benefit obligations. The projects resulted in significant public benefits provided to the city; furthermore, to the developer, the quantified price tag of those public benefits had more influence on the success of the project than the numbers might suggest.
I argue that although public benefits are often treated as project costs, they create long term value to both the developer and the city. Developers and planners who can understand the full spectrum of issues will likely be more successful in negotiating future agreements for zoning reliefs and public benefits. Christopher Zegras Collaborative Accessibilitybased Public Engagement for Bus Rapid Transit in Pretoria, South Africa Tools that make use of new technologies and new media to facilitate conversations for dispute-resolution have been studied and tested in various formats in recent years.
As a field constantly involved with resolving conflicting interests and seeking collaborative problem-solving, urban planning could benefit greatly from the development and deployment of such tools. CoAXs Collaborative Accessibility-based Stakeholder Engagement is an interactive planning tool intended to enhance public participation in planning public transport systems.
It has been implemented in different contexts in the United States and in Chile. With an ambitious plan to expand its Bus Rapid Transit BRT network, but facing constrained road space, Pretoria is two years behind its BRT development plan because of unresolved conflicts between private vehicle users and public transport riders. Using an adapted version of CoAXs that allows users to create 47 scenarios by selecting BRT route options, four public engagement workshops were conducted in July in Pretoria.
CoAXs was effective in facilitating and supporting public engagement conversations, although more understanding and consideration of the specific cultural context will be helpful in the future. Results show that the rental price gradient flattens slightly for apartments within the 3km radius from a subway station in Beijing. Such impact on rental price gradient change is not linear within the 3km radius, where in more developed areas the largest reduction in gradient happens at m, and in less developed areas at m.
The entry of dockless bike-sharing system can generate great social benefits by saving commuting time and allowing more housing supplies for tenants to choose from.In turn, its urban form is grappling with a number of preserved industrial heritage sites in major urban centers such as Beijing and Shanghai. However, there are many local benefits associated with buyout programs, including the removal of services from the neighborhood, increased flood protection for adjacent neighborhoods, and increased green space for conservation and recreation purposes. I find that correctional complexes are not well sited or designed to address the issues associated with all three scales. Climate Adaptation on a Dense Barrier Island in New York Finishing the hottest year on record, which happens to be the third hottest year in a row, climate change at this point is indisputable. The three principles of the Frolic Model are cooperative financing, codevelopment, and cohousing.
This study contributes to the nascent literature on dockless bike-sharing systems and its impacts on housing rental market, and also yields policy implications for better integrating the bike-sharing system and the existing public transit systems, and the resulted benefit of enhancing housing supply in public transit accessible locations. For all 17 TOD- housing projects combined, a weighted average trip generation rate was estimated. Structured parking in particular has a significant impact on development costs and is prohibitively expensive in most markets.
However, the reality is that countries facing the biggest hurdles when it comes to these matters do not have the necessary means to create sophisticated projects at large scales.
This thesis questions the correctness of this sub-par view. Partnering with land owners to co-develop their property, we allow them to avoid displacement and financially benefit from redevelopment. It begins with the premise that the characteristics of the prison as a physical structure is entangled with the prison as cultural item, political tactic, and social concept. This thesis examines the tensions and tradeoffs that planners face when addressing these two seemingly divergent industrial redevelopment approaches. This has left only two candidates remaining by the time the vote was held in the last three award cycles, and three candidates the two cycles prior.
As this thesis shows, leadership from high-ranking people is a key element in a successful policy process. The average trip rate for apartments is 6. Ryan Confinement in the Margins of the Margins: The Urban Design of Mass Incarceration The historically unprecedented and internationally incomparable rate of incarceration in the United States merits an analysis of the prison and incarceration as a key political, social, economic, and physical institution in America.
These data open opportunities for exploring the elite rhetoric that has contributed to these shifts. But what if the assumed definition of business success is limited in defining Black entrepreneurial success? Average Weekday Trip Comparisons Table 2.
This research is both a personal and political statement about the power of maintaining quality of life for vulnerable populations through sustaining the homeplace. The average trip rate for apartments is 6. The research uses literature in the adoption of technology in transportation to contextualize the case studies in Los Angeles and Minneapolis-St. But what if the assumed definition of business success is limited in defining Black entrepreneurial success? ITE Rate 24 hr.
Since the global financial crisis, twelves cities have withdrawn bids due to local referendums or pressure from local groups over the rising costs of hosting the Games or a desire to spend public funds elsewhere.